There is no federal system in Bahrain. Instead, the legal system draws upon Shari’a law ("Islamic Religious Law"), tribal law, Egyptian codes and English common law. The Shari'a courts deal primarily with the personal legal matters of Muslims (e.g. marriage and divorce), and the civil courts (derived from the Egyptian system) deal with all other matters. Due to the nature of the civil law legal system, there is no system of precedent in the courts and judgments are often unpublished. Proceedings are conducted in Arabic, mainly on the basis of written submissions with little reliance on live evidence (e.g. from witnesses).
In many civil law jurisdictions in the region, including Bahrain, the concepts of legal professional privilege and "without prejudice" communications do not exist per se. The parties therefore have the right to use any document which may support their position. Lawyers in Bahrain, however, will be bound by duties of confidentiality; these duties in many cases incorporate concepts similar to legal professional privilege.
Article 67 of the Bahraini Law of Evidence in Civil and Commercial Matters provides that "lawyers who acquire knowledge of certain facts or information through the carrying on of their practice may not disclose these unless the facts or information were told to them for the sole purpose of committing a felony or misdemeanor".