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  • Form of entity

    Corporation (Sociedad Anónima or SA)

    Separate and distinct legal entity. Admits a minimum of two shareholders. Managed by a board of directors who are elected by the stockholders of the corporation.

    Single-Shareholder Corporation (Sociedad Anónima Unipersonal or SAU)

    Separate and distinct legal entity. Admits exclusively one shareholder. SAUs are not allowed to be incorporated or wholly owned by SAUs. Managed by a board of directors who are elected by the only stockholder of the corporation.

    Simplified Corporation (Sociedad por Acciones Simplificada or SAS)

    Separate and distinct legal entity. Admits one or more shareholders. Managed by a board of directors who are elected by the stockholders. There is an established form of bylaws and public notice that, if used, shall enable the registration of the SAS within 24 hours in the City of Buenos Aires. This new corporate type aims to be more agile and economic alternative, both in its incorporation and in the administration and management. Its incorporation and development are entirely digital.

    Limited Liability Company (Sociedad de Responsabilidad Limitada or SRL)

    Separate and distinct legal entity. Admits a minimum of 2 members and a maximum of 50. Managed by a single manager or several managers with full powers who may act individually, or by a Board of Managers acting by majority, appointed by the members.

  • Entity set up

    Corporation (Sociedad Anónima or SA)

    • Two or more shareholders
    • The local management is in charge of a board of directors, which may have at least one member, no maximum number (at least three directors and one alternative director in case the company's capital stock exceeds ARS$50 million). Directors shall last between one and three years in office, as provided in the bylaws. They may be reelected. The majority of the board of directors must be composed of Argentine residents
    • The president of the board is the legal representative of the company
    • Statutory auditor is optional. Mandatory if capital stock exceeds ARS$50 million
    • Typical charter document: bylaws
    • Corporate Books: stock ledger, shareholders' meeting minutes, board of directors' meeting minutes and attendance records book
    • Should cash be paid out as consideration for the stock; only 25% needs to be paid up upfront, and the balance is paid within two years after that. When considerations for the stock are contributions in kind, the stock must be fully paid off at the time of subscription of the shares

    Single-Shareholder Corporation (Sociedad Anónima Unipersonal or SAU)

    • Only one shareholder
    • The local management is in charge of a board of directors, which may have at least one member, no maximum number (at least three directors and one alternative director in case the company's capital stock exceeds ARS$50 million). Directors shall last between one and three years in office, as provided in the bylaws. They may be reelected. The majority of the board of directors must be composed of Argentine residents
    • The president of the board is the legal representative of the company
    • Permanent control by government
    • Statutory auditor is mandatory (at least one regular and one alternate statutory auditor)
    • Typical charter document: bylaws
    • Corporate books: stock ledger, shareholders' meeting minutes, board of directors' meeting minutes and attendance records book
    • Capital stock shall be fully paid up upon execution of bylaws
    • SAUs are not allowed to be incorporated or wholly owned by another SAU

    Simplified Corporation (Sociedad por Acciones Simplificada or SAS)

    • One or more shareholders
    • The managers must be individuals, who may be appointed for an indefinite period. At least one director needs to be an Argentinean resident (provided that the Argentinian resident director is the legal representative of the company)
    • Statutory auditor is optional
    • Corporate books: carried by electronic means (stock ledger, minutes and attendance records book)
    • Should cash be paid out as consideration for the stock; only 25% needs to be paid up upfront, and the balance is paid within two years after that. When considerations for the stock are contributions in kind, the stock must be fully paid off at the time of subscription of the shares

    Limited Liability Company (Sociedad de Responsabilidad Limitada or SRL)

    • Two or more members
    • The local management is in charge of single or several managers with full powers who may act individually, or a board of managers acting by majority. Managers may be appointed for an indefinite term. The majority of the board of managers must be composed of Argentine residents
    • The legal representative of the company can be a single manager. All managers or a president of the board of managers are entitled with full powers
    • Statutory auditor is optional. Mandatory if capital stock exceeds ARS$10 million (at least one regular and one alternate member)
    • Typical charter document: bylaws
    • Corporate books: minutes
    • Should cash be paid out as consideration for the stock; only 25% needs to be paid up upfront, and the balance is paid within two years after that. When considerations for the stock are contributions in kind, the stock must be fully paid off at the time of subscription of the shares.
  • Minimum capital requirement

    Corporation (Sociedad Anónima or SA)

    Minimum capital of SA is ARS$100,000.

    Single-Shareholder Corporation (Sociedad Anónima Unipersonal or SAU)

    Minimum capital of SAU is ARS$100,000.

    Simplified Corporation (Sociedad por Acciones Simplificada or SAS)

    Minimum capital of SAS shall be twice the national minimum vital and mobile wage established at the time of its incorporation (as of March 2019: ARS$23,800).

    Limited Liability Company (Sociedad de Responsabilidad Limitada or SRL)

    No minimum capital requirement.

  • Legal liability

    Corporation (Sociedad Anónima or SA)

    Directors must act honestly and in good faith in best interests of the company. Directors can be held personally liable to the company, shareholders and third parties if they fail to comply with their general legal duties or specific duties contained in Argentine Law 19,550.

    Single-Shareholder Corporation (Sociedad Anónima Unipersonal or SAU)

    Directors must act honestly and in good faith in best interests of the company. Directors can be held personally liable to the company, shareholders and third parties if they fail to comply with their general legal duties or specific duties contained in Argentine Law 19,550.

    Simplified Corporation (Sociedad por Acciones Simplificada or SAS)

    Liability of directors of a corporation under Law 19,550 is applicable to SAS managers. In addition, individuals who are not managers or legal representatives of an SAS, or legal persons acting as managers, are liable in the same way as managers, and their liability will be extended to the acts in which they did not intervene but which they habitually performed.

    Limited Liability Company (Sociedad de Responsabilidad Limitada or SRL)

    In case of SRLs, when articles allow distribution of management powers among individual members of the board of managers, board's liability depends on the individual performance of each manager.

  • Tax presence

    Sociedad Anónima (Corporation) and SRL (LLC)

    An S.A., same as an SRL (LLC), is considered an Argentine resident for tax purposes and is obligated to pay taxes on income obtained worldwide, whether earned within Argentina or abroad. An S.A. may take the sums effectively paid abroad for analogous taxes, for activities carried out abroad as a payment for taxes (within certain limits).

  • Incorporation process

    Corporation (Sociedad Anónima or SA)

    File bylaws for registration with the Public Registry. Starting from April 4, 2018, an "urgent" registration process may be followed to obtain the company's registration and its tax ID within 24 hours, in case no observations are made by the Public Registry in the City of Buenos Aires.

    Single-Shareholder Corporation (Sociedad Anónima Unipersonal or SAU)

    File bylaws for registration with the Public Registry. Starting from April 4, 2018, an "urgent" registration process may be followed to obtain the company's registration and its tax ID within 24 hours, in case no observations are made by the Public Registry in the City of Buenos Aires.

    Simplified Corporation (Sociedad por Acciones Simplificada or SAS)

    File bylaws for registration with the Public Registry. There is an established form of bylaws and public notice that, if used, shall enable the registration of the SAS within 24 hours through digital means in the City of Buenos Aires.

    Limited Liability Company (Sociedad de Responsabilidad Limitada or SRL)

    File bylaws for registration with the Public Registry. An "urgent" registration process may be followed to obtain the company's registration, its tax ID and corporate books within 24 hours, in case no observations are made by the Public Registry in the City of Buenos Aires.

  • Business recognition

    Corporation (Sociedad Anónima or SA)

    Well regarded and widely used.

    Single-Shareholder Corporation (Sociedad Anónima Unipersonal or SAU)

    This new corporate type was introduced in Argentina in August 2016 pursuant the Argentine Civil and Commercial Code modification and is beginning to be used.

    Simplified Corporation (Sociedad por Acciones Simplificada or SAS)

    This new corporate type aims to be more agile and economic alternative, both in its incorporation and in administration and management. Its incorporation and development will entirely be in digital form.

    Limited Liability Company (Sociedad de Responsabilidad Limitada or SRL)

    Well regarded and widely used. This is the type of company usually preferred by foreign shareholders due to tax purposes.

  • Shareholder meeting requirements

    Corporation (Sociedad Anónima or SA)

    Required to hold annual meeting of shareholders to approve the financial statements of the company.

    Single-Shareholder Corporation (Sociedad Anónima Unipersonal or SAU)

    Required to hold annual meeting of shareholders to approve financial statements of the company.

    Simplified Corporation (Sociedad por Acciones Simplificada or SAS)

    Required to hold annual meeting of shareholders to approve financial statements of the company.

    Limited Liability Company (Sociedad de Responsabilidad Limitada or SRL)

    Required to hold annual meeting of members to approve financial statements of the company.

  • Board of director meeting requirements

    Corporation (Sociedad Anónima or SA)

    The board shall meet at least once every three months.

    Single-Shareholder Corporation (Sociedad Anónima Unipersonal or SAU)

    Periodical meetings of the board are not required.

    Simplified Corporation (Sociedad por Acciones Simplificada or SAS)

    Periodical meetings of the board are not required.

    Limited Liability Company (Sociedad de Responsabilidad Limitada or SRL)

    Periodical meetings of managers are not required.

  • Annual company tax returns

    All corporations must annually file tax returns with federal and state tax authorities.

  • Business registration filing requirements

    Corporation (Sociedad Anónima or SA)

    Initial registration is required, as well as annual filings (financial statements of the company before the Public Registry and the Tax Authority). Every appointment or resignation of directors, change of domicile or bylaws' amendments must be filed with the Public Registry for registration.

    Single-Shareholder Corporation (Sociedad Anónima Unipersonal or SAU)

    Initial registration is required, as well as annual filings (financial statements of the company before the Public Registry and the Tax Authority). Every appointment or resignation of directors, change of domicile or bylaws' amendments must be filed with the Public Registry for registration.

    Simplified Corporation (Sociedad por Acciones Simplificada or SAS)

    Initial registration is required. SAS doesn't file its financial statements with the Public Registry, but these documents must be filed with the Tax Authority. Every appointment or resignation of directors, change of domicile or bylaws' amendments must be filed with the Public Registry for registration.

    Limited Liability Company (Sociedad de Responsabilidad Limitada or SRL)

    Initial registration is required. Only SRLs which capital stock exceeds ARS$50 million shall file their annual financial statements with the Public Registry. However, all SRLs must file their fincancial statements with the tax authorities.

  • Business expansion

    Corporation (Sociedad Anónima or SA)

    No need to change as business expands.

    Single-Shareholder Corporation (Sociedad Anónima Unipersonal or SAU)

    If the number of shareholders exceeds one, the SAU must convert to an SA or SAS.

    Simplified Corporation (Sociedad por Acciones Simplificada or SAS)

    No need to change as business expands.

    Limited Liability Company (Sociedad de Responsabilidad Limitada or SRL)

    If the number of members exceeds 50, the SRL must convert to an SA or SAS.

  • Exit strategy

    Any corporate type shall file dissolution documents with the Public Registry.

  • Annual corporate maintenance requirements

    Corporations and single-shareholders corporations must pay annual fee to the Public Registry.

  • Director / officer requirements

    Not applicable for this jurisdiction.

  • Local corporate secretary requirement

    Not applicable for this jurisdiction.

  • Local legal or admin representative requirement

    Not applicable for this jurisdiction.

  • Local office lease requirement

    In some circumstances, the Tax Authority requires evidence of the declared domicile.

  • Other physical presence requirements

    Not applicable for this jurisdiction.

  • Sufficiency of virtual office

    Not applicable for this jurisdiction.

  • Provision of local registered address by law firm or third-party service provider

    A company must provide its registered address. In certain circumstances, a law firm office can provide the registered address until the local entity hires an office. In this case, the company is requested to move its registered office to its new location.

  • Provision of local director or corporate secretary by law firm or third-party service provider

    A company shall provide a local director. In certain circumstances, a law firm may provide a local director service at a monthly rate.

  • Nationality or residency requirements for shareholders, directors and officers

    Corporation (Sociedad Anónima or SA)

    Majority of members of the board need to be Argentinean residents.

    Single-Shareholder Corporation (Sociedad Anónima Unipersonal or SAU)

    Majority of the members of the board need to be Argentinean residents.

    Simplified Corporation (Sociedad por Acciones Simplificada or SAS)

    At least one director needs to be Argentinean resident (provided that the Argentinean resident director is the legal representative of the company).

    Limited Liability Company (Sociedad de Responsabilidad Limitada or SRL)

    Majority of the members of the board need to be Argentinean residents.

  • Restrictions regarding appointment of nominee shareholders or directors

    Not applicable for this jurisdiction.

  • Summary of director's, officer's and shareholder's authority and limitations thereof

    Not applicable for this jurisdiction.

  • Public disclosure of identity of directors, officers and shareholders

    Not applicable for this jurisdiction.

  • Minimum and maximum number of directors and shareholders

    Corporation (Sociedad Anónima or SA)

    • Two or more shareholders
    • Board of directors, which must have at least one member, no maximum number requirement (at least three directors and one alternative director in case the company's capital stock exceeds ARS$50 million)

    Single-Shareholder Corporation (Sociedad Anónima Unipersonal or SAU)

    • One shareholder
    • Board of directors, which must have at least one member, no maximum number requirement (at least three directors and one alternative director in case the company's capital stock exceeds ARS$50 million)

    Simplified Corporation (Sociedad por Acciones Simplificada or SAS)

    • One or more shareholders
    • The managers must be individuals, who can be appointed for an indefinite period

    Limited Liability Company (Sociedad de Responsabilidad Limitada or SRL)

    • Two or more members (within a maximum of 50 members)
    • The local management is maintained by a single manager, several managers with full powers who may act individually, or a board of managers acting by majority. Managers may be appointed for an indefinite term
  • Minimum number of shareholders required

    Corporation (Sociedad Anónima or SA)

    At least two or more shareholders.

    Single-Shareholder Corporation (Sociedad Anónima Unipersonal or SAU)

    Only one shareholder is admitted.

    Simplified Corporation (Sociedad por Acciones Simplificada or SAS)

    At least one shareholder.

    Limited Liability Company (Sociedad de Responsabilidad Limitada or SRL)

    At least two or more members.

  • Removal of directors or officers

    Removal of directors or managers shall be approved by the shareholders meeting and then registered in the Public Registry.

  • Required and optional officers

    Not applicable for this jurisdiction.

  • Board meeting requirements

    Not applicable for this jurisdiction.

  • Quorum requirements for shareholder and board meetings

    Corporation (Sociedad Anónima or SA)

    The Board makes decisions by a simple majority of directors present at the relevant meeting, with a quorum of an absolute majority of total number of directors, unless the company's articles provide for a higher quorum and majority.

    In case of annual or regular shareholders' meetings, the required quorum shall be constituted by shareholders representing the majority of the voting shares. If quorum is not reached, the meeting can be held at a second call. In this case, the meeting is duly constituted with any number of shareholders present. On the other hand, special meetings require the presence of shareholders representing 60% of the voting shares, unless the articles provide for a higher quorum. If quorum is not reached, the meeting can be held at a second call. In this case, the meeting is duly constituted with the presence of shareholders representing 30% of the voting shares, unless the articles provide otherwise.

    Single-Shareholder Corporation (Sociedad Anónima Unipersonal or SAU)

    The board makes decisions by a simple majority of directors present at the relevant meeting, with a quorum of an absolute majority of total number of directors, unless the company's articles provide for a higher quorum and majority.

    In the case of shareholders' meeting, quorum is reached if at least one shareholder of the company is present.

    Simplified Corporation (Sociedad por Acciones Simplificada or SAS)

    Meetings may be held physically or through digital means (video or teleconference). Managers and members may call themselves to hold deliberations, with no need of prior notice. The management body's resolutions are valid as long as all members attend, and the majority as stated in the bylaws approve the agenda. Member's resolutions will be valid, provided that all partners attend and the agenda is passed unanimously.

    Limited Liability Company (Sociedad de Responsabilidad Limitada or SRL)

    The board makes decisions by a simple majority of the managers present at the relevant meeting, with a quorum of an absolute majority of total number of directors, unless the company's articles provide for a higher quorum and majority.

    In case of annual or regular members' meetings, required quorum is constituted by the shareholders representing the majority of the voting shares. If quorum is not reached, meeting can be held at a second call. In this case, the meeting is duly constituted with any number of shareholders present. On the other hand, special meetings require the presence of members representing 60% of voting shares, unless articles provide for a higher quorum. If quorum is not reached, a meeting can be held at a second call. In this case, the meeting is duly constituted with the presence of members representing 30% of voting shares, unless the articles provide otherwise.

  • Must a bank account be opened prior to incorporation, and must the bank account be local?

    Not applicable for this jurisdiction.

  • Auditing of local financials. If so, must the auditor be located in local jurisdiction, and must the company's books be kept locally?

    All companies need to have at least annual financial statements audited. The auditor must be located in Argentina and the company's corporate and accounting books must be kept locally.

  • Requirement regarding par value of stock

    Not applicable for this jurisdiction.

  • Increasing of capitalization if needed

    Not applicable for this jurisdiction.

  • Summary of how funds can be repatriated from your jurisdiction (ie dividends or redemption)

    When approving annual financial statements, shareholders' meeting can resolve to distribute dividends, which will be transferred to respective shareholders.

  • Restrictions on transferability of shares

    Corporation (Sociedad Anónima or SA)

    No restrictions, unless otherwise provided in bylaws. Transfers are reported to the company and recorded in Stock Ledger Book.

    Single-Shareholder Corporation (Sociedad por Acciones Unipersonal or SAU)

    No restrictions, unless otherwise provided in bylaws. Transfers are reported to the company and recorded in  Stock Ledger Book.

    Simplified Corporation (Sociedad por Acciones Simplificada or SAS)

    No restrictions, unless otherwise provided in bylaws. Transfers are reported to the company and recorded in Stock Ledger Book.

    Limited Liability Company (Sociedad de Responsabilidad Limitada or SRL)

    No restrictions, unless otherwise provided in bylaws. Transfers shall be reported and registered with the Public Registry of Commerce.

  • Obtaining a name and naming requirements

    Corporate name must contain the type of company it adopted. Name may be reserved before registering the company by paying and filing a form with the Public Registry, in case chosen name is available.

  • Summary of "know your client" requirements

    Not applicable for this jurisdiction.

  • Approval requirements for amending charter document

    Amendments to bylaws in all companies must be approved by shareholders or members' meeting and then filed for registration by the Public Registry.

  • Licenses required to conduct business in jurisdiction

    Not applicable for this jurisdiction.

  • Process of purchasing and utilizing a shelf company

    Not applicable for this jurisdiction.

  • Key contacts
    Martin Mittelman
    Martin Mittelman
    Partner DLA Piper (Argentina) [email protected] T +5411 41145500 View bio
    Antonio Arias
    Antonio Arias
    Partner DLA Piper (Argentina) [email protected] T +5411 4114 5500 View bio

Local legal or admin representative requirement

Argentina

Not applicable for this jurisdiction.

Australia

Branch

None beyond the required local agent.

Proprietary company

None beyond the required director.

Public company

None beyond the required directors and company secretary.

Austria

Stock corporation (AG)

Not applicable for this jurisdiction.

Limited liability company (GmbH)

Not applicable for this jurisdiction.

Bahrain

With Limited Liability (WLL)

Not applicable for this jurisdiction.

Closed Shareholding Company (BSC(c))

Not applicable for this jurisdiction.

Single Person Company (SPC)

Not applicable for this jurisdiction.

Foreign Branch (Branch)

Not applicable for this jurisdiction.

Belgium

Public limited company (société anonyme/naamloze vennootschap)

Not applicable for this jurisdiction.

Limited company (société à responsabilité limitée/besloten vennootschap)

Not applicable for this jurisdiction.

Belgian branch office of a foreign company

The legal representative has to be present in Belgium on a regular basis in order to enter into contracts with third parties in Belgium. There is the requirement that the legal representative has to reside in Belgium.

Brazil

Limited liability company (Sociedade Limitada)

Not applicable for this jurisdiction.

Corporation (Sociedade Anônima)

Not applicable for this jurisdiction.

Canada

Corporate subsidiary (Corporation form rather than flow-through form)

Most provinces and territories require a corporation registered in their jurisdiction to have an agent for service or power of attorney where the entity does not otherwise have a place of business in the province or territory. An agent for service or power of attorney is generally an individual who is 18 years or older and resides in the province or territory of registration.

Chile

Any company must have a representative before the tax authorities who must be Chilean or foreigner but domiciled in the country. This is not applicable to directors and other officers except in the case of certain industries.

China

Legal representative is required, which must be either a chairman of the board of directors (or executive director, as applicable) or a general manager pursuant to the articles of association of an LLC.

An LLC may also need to record one or two contact persons for purposes of liaison with thetax authorities and the AMR when an LLC is established. Such contact person(s) should be individuals who usually reside within China and speak Chinese.

Colombia

The company must have a legal representative.

Czech Republic

Not applicable for this jurisdiction.

Denmark

Limited liability company (Kapitalselskab)

None beyond the required management and, where applicable, members of board of directors or supervisory board.

Egypt

The Egyptian laws provide for local representative requirements in regards to certain activities including, inter alia, the following:

  • Importation activities for trading purposes: manager(s) of the company conducting the importation activity and  51% of its shareholders must be Egyptians
  • Commercial agency activities: manager(s) and board members of the JSC participating in such activity are required to be Egyptians or have held Egyptian nationality for at least 10 years. Additionally, it should be wholly owned by Egyptians or persons who have held Egyptian nationality for at least 10 years
  • Acquiring lands and/or real estates' in Sinai: the company is required to be wholly owned by Egyptians and
  • Operating in Sinai: the company must be established in the form of JSC and 55% of its shareholders must be Egyptians

Further, with regard to the Egyptian employees' ratio in Egyptian companies, the Companies Law provides that the number of the Egyptian employees should not be less than 90% of the manpower in corporate entities.

Finland

Osakeyhtiö (Oy)

In the event an Oy has no authorized representative (ie, board member, managing director or special company signatory) who is resident in European Economic Area (EU, Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein), board of directors shall authorize a person who is resident in Finland to act as person authorized to receive service of process on behalf of the company.

France

Société par actions simplifiée (SAS)

None beyond the required president.

Société à responsabilité limitée (SARL)

None beyond the required managing director(s).

Société anonyme (SA)

None beyond the required board of directors in the event of an SA with a board of directors (Conseil d'administration) or the required executive board (Directoire) with a supervisory board (Conseil de Surveillance) in the event of an SA with an executive board (Directoire) with a supervisory board (Conseil de Surveillance).

Germany

GmbH – limited liability company

None.

Greece

Not applicable for this jurisdiction.

Hong Kong

Limited private companies

None beyond the required natural director and company secretary.

Hungary

It is possible and lawful to establish a wholly foreign owned and managed company. Representation by a Hungarian attorney at law is mandatory in the course of the initial corporate registration and subsequent amendment registration procedures before the Court of Registration.

Due to professional qualification requirements, companies are recommended to engage local accountants or accountancy firms to perform day-to-day business, accounting and taxation tasks for the company.

India

Private limited company

None except for the forthcoming local director requirement.

Indonesia

Limited liability company

Not legally required.

Ireland

Private company limited by shares (LTD)

None.

 

External company

A branch is required to indicate the following on registration:

  • The person or persons authorized to represent the branch
  • A person resident in Ireland authorized to accept service of proceedings and notices
  • A person resident in Ireland authorized to ensure compliance with the Companies Act 2014

Israel

Company

None beyond the required director.

Branch / representative office

Not applicable.

Italy

Società a responsabilità limitata (S.r.l.) and Società per azioni (S.p.A.)

The Italian entity shall have to appoint a legal representative who may be also a foreign individual.

Japan

Registered branch

None.

Kabushiki-Kaisha (KK)

None beyond the required directors, statutory auditor, accounting auditor.

Godo-Kaisha (GK)

None.

Luxembourg

Private limited liability company (Société à responsabilité limitée or S.à r.l.)

The company must be managed in Luxembourg.

Public limited liability company (Société anonyme or S.A.)

The company must be managed in Luxembourg.

Special limited partnership (Société en commandite spéciale or SCSp)

The company must be managed in Luxembourg.

Malaysia

Not applicable for this jurisdiction.

Mexico

S.A. de C.V.

Appointment of statutory examiner (comisario).

S. de R.L. de C.V.

No legal requirement.

S.A.P.I. de C.V.

Appointment of statutory examiner (comisario) or a surveillance committee.

Netherlands

Branch office

The head office may appoint on or more proxy holders who can represent the branch office in the Netherlands (limited or general power of attorney for the activities of the branch office). These proxy holders must be registered in the Dutch Trade Register.

B.V. (private company with limited liability)

None beyond the required director. If there is no presence in the Netherlands yet, a Dutch Trust company can provide local representative(s), office address and administration services to the BV.

Co-operative U.A.

None beyond the required board member. If there is no presence in the Netherlands yet, a Dutch Trust company can provide local representative(s), office address and administration services to the Co-operative.

C.V. (a limited partnership)

None beyond the requirement of at least one general partner.

New Zealand

Limited liability company

None beyond the required director.

Listed companies must have an auditor. 

Branch

None beyond having someone is authorised to accept service on behalf of the branch.

Norway

Not applicable for this jurisdiction.

Philippines

Generally a resident agent is required.

As an exception for a subsidiary, only the 3 officers mentioned above are mandatory.

Not applicable for a partnership.

Poland

Not applicable for this jurisdiction. However, in case of branches, a representative in Poland must be indicated. Representatives must obtain Polish personal identification number (PESEL).

Portugal

Not applicable for this jurisdiction.

Puerto Rico

Corporations

Not applicable for this jurisdiction.

Limited Liability Companies

Not applicable for this jurisdiction.

Romania

Not applicable for this jurisdiction.

Russia

Joint-stock company (public and non-public)

None beyond the officers required for conducting business.

Limited liability company

None beyond the required officers required for conducting business.

Saudi Arabia

Limited liability company

None beyond the required managers or directors.

Singapore

Limited liability company

None required for incorporation.

South Africa

Not applicable for this jurisdiction.

South Korea

Joint-stock company (Jusik Hoesa)

None beyond the required directors and officers.

Limited company (Yuhan Hoesa)

None beyond the required directors and officers.

Spain

Not applicable except for branches, which need to have a tax representative in Spain. Said representative will be liable for the branch's tax obligations.

Sweden

Limited company (Sw. aktiebolag, AB)

None beyond the required directors and, where applicable, managing director.

Trading partnership (Sw. handelsbolag, HB)

One or more partners must always be authorized as a signatory or signatories.

Limited partnership (Sw. kommanditbolag, KB)

One or more partners must always be authorized as a signatory or signatories.

Branch office (Sw. filial, Branch)

None beyond the required managing director and, where applicable, person to receive process.

Switzerland

Stock corporation

At least one director or officer needs to have single signatory power and residence in Switzerland or two directors or officers need to have joint signatory power by two and Swiss residence.

Taiwan

Company limited by shares

Not applicable for this jurisdiction.

Closely-held company limited by shares

Not applicable for this jurisdiction.

Limited company

Not applicable for this jurisdiction.

Branch office of a foreign company

Not applicable for this jurisdiction.

Thailand

Not applicable for this jurisdiction.

Turkey

Not mandatory.

United Arab Emirates

LLC

None beyond the required director/officer requirements.

Branch

None beyond the required general manager requirement.

FZ-LLC

None beyond the required director/officer requirements.

FZ-Branch

None beyond the required general manager requirement.

Dual Licence Branch

None beyond the general manager requirement.

United Kingdom

Private limited company

Not applicable for this jurisdiction.

Limited liability partnership (LLP)

No statutory requirement. Requirements governed by LLP Agreement.

Registered UK establishment

Not applicable for this jurisdiction.

United States

Corporations will generally need to have a registered agent in the state of incorporation. This does not require the corporation to maintain an office or employee in the state. Third party agents with offices in such state commonly can serve as a registered agent.

Vietnam

Generally, the company is required to have at least one legal representative who is residing in Vietnam.