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  • Form of entity

    Corporation (Sociedad Anónima or SA)

    Separate and distinct legal entity. Admits a minimum of two shareholders. Managed by a board of directors who are elected by the stockholders of the corporation.

    Single-Shareholder Corporation (Sociedad Anónima Unipersonal or SAU)

    Separate and distinct legal entity. Admits exclusively one shareholder. SAUs are not allowed to be incorporated or wholly owned by SAUs. Managed by a board of directors who are elected by the only stockholder of the corporation.

    Simplified Corporation (Sociedad por Acciones Simplificada or SAS)

    Separate and distinct legal entity. Admits one or more shareholders. Managed by a board of directors who are elected by the stockholders. There is an established form of bylaws and public notice that, if used, shall enable the registration of the SAS within 24 hours in the City of Buenos Aires. This new corporate type aims to be more agile and economic alternative, both in its incorporation and in the administration and management. Its incorporation and development are entirely digital.

    Limited Liability Company (Sociedad de Responsabilidad Limitada or SRL)

    Separate and distinct legal entity. Admits a minimum of 2 members and a maximum of 50. Managed by a single manager or several managers with full powers who may act individually, or by a Board of Managers acting by majority, appointed by the members.

  • Entity set up

    Corporation (Sociedad Anónima or SA)

    • Two or more shareholders
    • The local management is in charge of a board of directors, which may have at least one member, no maximum number (at least three directors and one alternative director in case the company's capital stock exceeds ARS$50 million). Directors shall last between one and three years in office, as provided in the bylaws. They may be reelected. The majority of the board of directors must be composed of Argentine residents
    • The president of the board is the legal representative of the company
    • Statutory auditor is optional. Mandatory if capital stock exceeds ARS$50 million
    • Typical charter document: bylaws
    • Corporate Books: stock ledger, shareholders' meeting minutes, board of directors' meeting minutes and attendance records book
    • Should cash be paid out as consideration for the stock; only 25% needs to be paid up upfront, and the balance is paid within two years after that. When considerations for the stock are contributions in kind, the stock must be fully paid off at the time of subscription of the shares

    Single-Shareholder Corporation (Sociedad Anónima Unipersonal or SAU)

    • Only one shareholder
    • The local management is in charge of a board of directors, which may have at least one member, no maximum number (at least three directors and one alternative director in case the company's capital stock exceeds ARS$50 million). Directors shall last between one and three years in office, as provided in the bylaws. They may be reelected. The majority of the board of directors must be composed of Argentine residents
    • The president of the board is the legal representative of the company
    • Permanent control by government
    • Statutory auditor is mandatory (at least one regular and one alternate statutory auditor)
    • Typical charter document: bylaws
    • Corporate books: stock ledger, shareholders' meeting minutes, board of directors' meeting minutes and attendance records book
    • Capital stock shall be fully paid up upon execution of bylaws
    • SAUs are not allowed to be incorporated or wholly owned by another SAU

    Simplified Corporation (Sociedad por Acciones Simplificada or SAS)

    • One or more shareholders
    • The managers must be individuals, who may be appointed for an indefinite period. At least one director needs to be an Argentinean resident (provided that the Argentinian resident director is the legal representative of the company)
    • Statutory auditor is optional
    • Corporate books: carried by electronic means (stock ledger, minutes and attendance records book)
    • Should cash be paid out as consideration for the stock; only 25% needs to be paid up upfront, and the balance is paid within two years after that. When considerations for the stock are contributions in kind, the stock must be fully paid off at the time of subscription of the shares

    Limited Liability Company (Sociedad de Responsabilidad Limitada or SRL)

    • Two or more members
    • The local management is in charge of single or several managers with full powers who may act individually, or a board of managers acting by majority. Managers may be appointed for an indefinite term. The majority of the board of managers must be composed of Argentine residents
    • The legal representative of the company can be a single manager. All managers or a president of the board of managers are entitled with full powers
    • Statutory auditor is optional. Mandatory if capital stock exceeds ARS$10 million (at least one regular and one alternate member)
    • Typical charter document: bylaws
    • Corporate books: minutes
    • Should cash be paid out as consideration for the stock; only 25% needs to be paid up upfront, and the balance is paid within two years after that. When considerations for the stock are contributions in kind, the stock must be fully paid off at the time of subscription of the shares.
  • Minimum capital requirement

    Corporation (Sociedad Anónima or SA)

    Minimum capital of SA is ARS$100,000.

    Single-Shareholder Corporation (Sociedad Anónima Unipersonal or SAU)

    Minimum capital of SAU is ARS$100,000.

    Simplified Corporation (Sociedad por Acciones Simplificada or SAS)

    Minimum capital of SAS shall be twice the national minimum vital and mobile wage established at the time of its incorporation (as of March 2019: ARS$23,800).

    Limited Liability Company (Sociedad de Responsabilidad Limitada or SRL)

    No minimum capital requirement.

  • Legal liability

    Corporation (Sociedad Anónima or SA)

    Directors must act honestly and in good faith in best interests of the company. Directors can be held personally liable to the company, shareholders and third parties if they fail to comply with their general legal duties or specific duties contained in Argentine Law 19,550.

    Single-Shareholder Corporation (Sociedad Anónima Unipersonal or SAU)

    Directors must act honestly and in good faith in best interests of the company. Directors can be held personally liable to the company, shareholders and third parties if they fail to comply with their general legal duties or specific duties contained in Argentine Law 19,550.

    Simplified Corporation (Sociedad por Acciones Simplificada or SAS)

    Liability of directors of a corporation under Law 19,550 is applicable to SAS managers. In addition, individuals who are not managers or legal representatives of an SAS, or legal persons acting as managers, are liable in the same way as managers, and their liability will be extended to the acts in which they did not intervene but which they habitually performed.

    Limited Liability Company (Sociedad de Responsabilidad Limitada or SRL)

    In case of SRLs, when articles allow distribution of management powers among individual members of the board of managers, board's liability depends on the individual performance of each manager.

  • Tax presence

    Sociedad Anónima (Corporation) and SRL (LLC)

    An S.A., same as an SRL (LLC), is considered an Argentine resident for tax purposes and is obligated to pay taxes on income obtained worldwide, whether earned within Argentina or abroad. An S.A. may take the sums effectively paid abroad for analogous taxes, for activities carried out abroad as a payment for taxes (within certain limits).

  • Incorporation process

    Corporation (Sociedad Anónima or SA)

    File bylaws for registration with the Public Registry. Starting from April 4, 2018, an "urgent" registration process may be followed to obtain the company's registration and its tax ID within 24 hours, in case no observations are made by the Public Registry in the City of Buenos Aires.

    Single-Shareholder Corporation (Sociedad Anónima Unipersonal or SAU)

    File bylaws for registration with the Public Registry. Starting from April 4, 2018, an "urgent" registration process may be followed to obtain the company's registration and its tax ID within 24 hours, in case no observations are made by the Public Registry in the City of Buenos Aires.

    Simplified Corporation (Sociedad por Acciones Simplificada or SAS)

    File bylaws for registration with the Public Registry. There is an established form of bylaws and public notice that, if used, shall enable the registration of the SAS within 24 hours through digital means in the City of Buenos Aires.

    Limited Liability Company (Sociedad de Responsabilidad Limitada or SRL)

    File bylaws for registration with the Public Registry. An "urgent" registration process may be followed to obtain the company's registration, its tax ID and corporate books within 24 hours, in case no observations are made by the Public Registry in the City of Buenos Aires.

  • Business recognition

    Corporation (Sociedad Anónima or SA)

    Well regarded and widely used.

    Single-Shareholder Corporation (Sociedad Anónima Unipersonal or SAU)

    This new corporate type was introduced in Argentina in August 2016 pursuant the Argentine Civil and Commercial Code modification and is beginning to be used.

    Simplified Corporation (Sociedad por Acciones Simplificada or SAS)

    This new corporate type aims to be more agile and economic alternative, both in its incorporation and in administration and management. Its incorporation and development will entirely be in digital form.

    Limited Liability Company (Sociedad de Responsabilidad Limitada or SRL)

    Well regarded and widely used. This is the type of company usually preferred by foreign shareholders due to tax purposes.

  • Shareholder meeting requirements

    Corporation (Sociedad Anónima or SA)

    Required to hold annual meeting of shareholders to approve the financial statements of the company.

    Single-Shareholder Corporation (Sociedad Anónima Unipersonal or SAU)

    Required to hold annual meeting of shareholders to approve financial statements of the company.

    Simplified Corporation (Sociedad por Acciones Simplificada or SAS)

    Required to hold annual meeting of shareholders to approve financial statements of the company.

    Limited Liability Company (Sociedad de Responsabilidad Limitada or SRL)

    Required to hold annual meeting of members to approve financial statements of the company.

  • Board of director meeting requirements

    Corporation (Sociedad Anónima or SA)

    The board shall meet at least once every three months.

    Single-Shareholder Corporation (Sociedad Anónima Unipersonal or SAU)

    Periodical meetings of the board are not required.

    Simplified Corporation (Sociedad por Acciones Simplificada or SAS)

    Periodical meetings of the board are not required.

    Limited Liability Company (Sociedad de Responsabilidad Limitada or SRL)

    Periodical meetings of managers are not required.

  • Annual company tax returns

    All corporations must annually file tax returns with federal and state tax authorities.

  • Business registration filing requirements

    Corporation (Sociedad Anónima or SA)

    Initial registration is required, as well as annual filings (financial statements of the company before the Public Registry and the Tax Authority). Every appointment or resignation of directors, change of domicile or bylaws' amendments must be filed with the Public Registry for registration.

    Single-Shareholder Corporation (Sociedad Anónima Unipersonal or SAU)

    Initial registration is required, as well as annual filings (financial statements of the company before the Public Registry and the Tax Authority). Every appointment or resignation of directors, change of domicile or bylaws' amendments must be filed with the Public Registry for registration.

    Simplified Corporation (Sociedad por Acciones Simplificada or SAS)

    Initial registration is required. SAS doesn't file its financial statements with the Public Registry, but these documents must be filed with the Tax Authority. Every appointment or resignation of directors, change of domicile or bylaws' amendments must be filed with the Public Registry for registration.

    Limited Liability Company (Sociedad de Responsabilidad Limitada or SRL)

    Initial registration is required. Only SRLs which capital stock exceeds ARS$50 million shall file their annual financial statements with the Public Registry. However, all SRLs must file their fincancial statements with the tax authorities.

  • Business expansion

    Corporation (Sociedad Anónima or SA)

    No need to change as business expands.

    Single-Shareholder Corporation (Sociedad Anónima Unipersonal or SAU)

    If the number of shareholders exceeds one, the SAU must convert to an SA or SAS.

    Simplified Corporation (Sociedad por Acciones Simplificada or SAS)

    No need to change as business expands.

    Limited Liability Company (Sociedad de Responsabilidad Limitada or SRL)

    If the number of members exceeds 50, the SRL must convert to an SA or SAS.

  • Exit strategy

    Any corporate type shall file dissolution documents with the Public Registry.

  • Annual corporate maintenance requirements

    Corporations and single-shareholders corporations must pay annual fee to the Public Registry.

  • Director / officer requirements

    Not applicable for this jurisdiction.

  • Local corporate secretary requirement

    Not applicable for this jurisdiction.

  • Local legal or admin representative requirement

    Not applicable for this jurisdiction.

  • Local office lease requirement

    In some circumstances, the Tax Authority requires evidence of the declared domicile.

  • Other physical presence requirements

    Not applicable for this jurisdiction.

  • Sufficiency of virtual office

    Not applicable for this jurisdiction.

  • Provision of local registered address by law firm or third-party service provider

    A company must provide its registered address. In certain circumstances, a law firm office can provide the registered address until the local entity hires an office. In this case, the company is requested to move its registered office to its new location.

  • Provision of local director or corporate secretary by law firm or third-party service provider

    A company shall provide a local director. In certain circumstances, a law firm may provide a local director service at a monthly rate.

  • Nationality or residency requirements for shareholders, directors and officers

    Corporation (Sociedad Anónima or SA)

    Majority of members of the board need to be Argentinean residents.

    Single-Shareholder Corporation (Sociedad Anónima Unipersonal or SAU)

    Majority of the members of the board need to be Argentinean residents.

    Simplified Corporation (Sociedad por Acciones Simplificada or SAS)

    At least one director needs to be Argentinean resident (provided that the Argentinean resident director is the legal representative of the company).

    Limited Liability Company (Sociedad de Responsabilidad Limitada or SRL)

    Majority of the members of the board need to be Argentinean residents.

  • Restrictions regarding appointment of nominee shareholders or directors

    Not applicable for this jurisdiction.

  • Summary of director's, officer's and shareholder's authority and limitations thereof

    Not applicable for this jurisdiction.

  • Public disclosure of identity of directors, officers and shareholders

    Not applicable for this jurisdiction.

  • Minimum and maximum number of directors and shareholders

    Corporation (Sociedad Anónima or SA)

    • Two or more shareholders
    • Board of directors, which must have at least one member, no maximum number requirement (at least three directors and one alternative director in case the company's capital stock exceeds ARS$50 million)

    Single-Shareholder Corporation (Sociedad Anónima Unipersonal or SAU)

    • One shareholder
    • Board of directors, which must have at least one member, no maximum number requirement (at least three directors and one alternative director in case the company's capital stock exceeds ARS$50 million)

    Simplified Corporation (Sociedad por Acciones Simplificada or SAS)

    • One or more shareholders
    • The managers must be individuals, who can be appointed for an indefinite period

    Limited Liability Company (Sociedad de Responsabilidad Limitada or SRL)

    • Two or more members (within a maximum of 50 members)
    • The local management is maintained by a single manager, several managers with full powers who may act individually, or a board of managers acting by majority. Managers may be appointed for an indefinite term
  • Minimum number of shareholders required

    Corporation (Sociedad Anónima or SA)

    At least two or more shareholders.

    Single-Shareholder Corporation (Sociedad Anónima Unipersonal or SAU)

    Only one shareholder is admitted.

    Simplified Corporation (Sociedad por Acciones Simplificada or SAS)

    At least one shareholder.

    Limited Liability Company (Sociedad de Responsabilidad Limitada or SRL)

    At least two or more members.

  • Removal of directors or officers

    Removal of directors or managers shall be approved by the shareholders meeting and then registered in the Public Registry.

  • Required and optional officers

    Not applicable for this jurisdiction.

  • Board meeting requirements

    Not applicable for this jurisdiction.

  • Quorum requirements for shareholder and board meetings

    Corporation (Sociedad Anónima or SA)

    The Board makes decisions by a simple majority of directors present at the relevant meeting, with a quorum of an absolute majority of total number of directors, unless the company's articles provide for a higher quorum and majority.

    In case of annual or regular shareholders' meetings, the required quorum shall be constituted by shareholders representing the majority of the voting shares. If quorum is not reached, the meeting can be held at a second call. In this case, the meeting is duly constituted with any number of shareholders present. On the other hand, special meetings require the presence of shareholders representing 60% of the voting shares, unless the articles provide for a higher quorum. If quorum is not reached, the meeting can be held at a second call. In this case, the meeting is duly constituted with the presence of shareholders representing 30% of the voting shares, unless the articles provide otherwise.

    Single-Shareholder Corporation (Sociedad Anónima Unipersonal or SAU)

    The board makes decisions by a simple majority of directors present at the relevant meeting, with a quorum of an absolute majority of total number of directors, unless the company's articles provide for a higher quorum and majority.

    In the case of shareholders' meeting, quorum is reached if at least one shareholder of the company is present.

    Simplified Corporation (Sociedad por Acciones Simplificada or SAS)

    Meetings may be held physically or through digital means (video or teleconference). Managers and members may call themselves to hold deliberations, with no need of prior notice. The management body's resolutions are valid as long as all members attend, and the majority as stated in the bylaws approve the agenda. Member's resolutions will be valid, provided that all partners attend and the agenda is passed unanimously.

    Limited Liability Company (Sociedad de Responsabilidad Limitada or SRL)

    The board makes decisions by a simple majority of the managers present at the relevant meeting, with a quorum of an absolute majority of total number of directors, unless the company's articles provide for a higher quorum and majority.

    In case of annual or regular members' meetings, required quorum is constituted by the shareholders representing the majority of the voting shares. If quorum is not reached, meeting can be held at a second call. In this case, the meeting is duly constituted with any number of shareholders present. On the other hand, special meetings require the presence of members representing 60% of voting shares, unless articles provide for a higher quorum. If quorum is not reached, a meeting can be held at a second call. In this case, the meeting is duly constituted with the presence of members representing 30% of voting shares, unless the articles provide otherwise.

  • Must a bank account be opened prior to incorporation, and must the bank account be local?

    Not applicable for this jurisdiction.

  • Auditing of local financials. If so, must the auditor be located in local jurisdiction, and must the company's books be kept locally?

    All companies need to have at least annual financial statements audited. The auditor must be located in Argentina and the company's corporate and accounting books must be kept locally.

  • Requirement regarding par value of stock

    Not applicable for this jurisdiction.

  • Increasing of capitalization if needed

    Not applicable for this jurisdiction.

  • Summary of how funds can be repatriated from your jurisdiction (ie dividends or redemption)

    When approving annual financial statements, shareholders' meeting can resolve to distribute dividends, which will be transferred to respective shareholders.

  • Restrictions on transferability of shares

    Corporation (Sociedad Anónima or SA)

    No restrictions, unless otherwise provided in bylaws. Transfers are reported to the company and recorded in Stock Ledger Book.

    Single-Shareholder Corporation (Sociedad por Acciones Unipersonal or SAU)

    No restrictions, unless otherwise provided in bylaws. Transfers are reported to the company and recorded in  Stock Ledger Book.

    Simplified Corporation (Sociedad por Acciones Simplificada or SAS)

    No restrictions, unless otherwise provided in bylaws. Transfers are reported to the company and recorded in Stock Ledger Book.

    Limited Liability Company (Sociedad de Responsabilidad Limitada or SRL)

    No restrictions, unless otherwise provided in bylaws. Transfers shall be reported and registered with the Public Registry of Commerce.

  • Obtaining a name and naming requirements

    Corporate name must contain the type of company it adopted. Name may be reserved before registering the company by paying and filing a form with the Public Registry, in case chosen name is available.

  • Summary of "know your client" requirements

    Not applicable for this jurisdiction.

  • Approval requirements for amending charter document

    Amendments to bylaws in all companies must be approved by shareholders or members' meeting and then filed for registration by the Public Registry.

  • Licenses required to conduct business in jurisdiction

    Not applicable for this jurisdiction.

  • Process of purchasing and utilizing a shelf company

    Not applicable for this jurisdiction.

  • Key contacts
    Martin Mittelman
    Martin Mittelman
    Partner DLA Piper (Argentina) [email protected] T +5411 41145500 View bio
    Antonio Arias
    Antonio Arias
    Partner DLA Piper (Argentina) [email protected] T +5411 4114 5500 View bio

Local office lease requirement

Argentina

In some circumstances, the Tax Authority requires evidence of the declared domicile.

Australia

Branch

Must have a registered office in Australia. This does not have to be owned or leased by the foreign company.

Proprietary company

Must have a registered office in Australia. This does not have to be owned or leased by the company, but the person who owns or leases that property must consent to it being the registered office of the company. Corporate records are generally required to be maintained at the registered office.

Public company

Must have a registered office in Australia. This does not have to be owned or leased by the company, but the person who owns or leases that property must consent to it being the registered office of the company. Corporate records are generally required to be maintained at the registered office.

Austria

Stock corporation (AG)

None required for incorporation; however, an address must be filed with the companies registry (can be the address of a law firm).

Limited liability company (GmbH)

None required for incorporation; however, an address must be filed with the commercial registry (can be the address of a law firm).

Bahrain

With Limited Liability (WLL)

A local office lease is required. 

Closed Shareholding Company (BSC(c))

A local office lease is required.

Single Person Company (SPC)

A local office lease is required. 

Foreign Branch (Branch)

A local office lease is required. 

Belgium

Public limited company (société anonyme/naamloze vennootschap)

Service agreement/lease agreement for registered office or property.

Limited company (société privée à responsabilité limitée/besloten vennootschap)

Service agreement/lease agreement for registered office or property.

Belgian branch office of a foreign company

A Belgian branch office has to have a physical existence in Belgium, ie, an office in which the foreign company carries out its activities in Belgium. Third-party service providers can provide a Belgian branch office with such local office.

Brazil

Limited liability company (Sociedade Limitada)

The address of the company's headquarters or branch must be adequate to the activities it will perform in such site.

Corporation (Sociedade Anônima)

The address of the corporation's headquarters or branch must be adequate to the activities it will perform in such site.

Canada

Corporate subsidiary (Corporation form rather than flow-through form) 

None required for incorporation.

Chile

Entity must have a local address within the Chilean territory for tax purposes.

China

Required for incorporation and on-going business operation, if an LLC does not itself own office premises.

Colombia

Not required.

Czech Republic

Since an address must be filed with the commercial register within the incorporation and throughout the term of the company, title to the address (at least consent of owner of the premises or a lease agreement) must be obtained.

Denmark

Limited liability company (Kapitalselskab)

Limited companies must have a registered office in Denmark, but it does not have to be either owned or leased by the comapny.

Egypt

An owned or leased registered physical office space is required for all types of entities.

Finland

Osakeyhtiö (Oy)

Not required.

France

Société par actions simplifiée (SAS)

Must justify the regular occupation of the registered office for incorporation.

Société à responsabilité limitée (SARL)

Must justify the regular occupation of the registered office for incorporation.

Société anonyme (SA)

Must justify the regular occupation of the registered office for incorporation.

Germany

GmbH – limited liability company

Filing for incorporation requires an office in Germany.  A lease is not required, however, a full postal address suitable for formal service of documents must be given. The actual location of the administrative headquarter can differ and therefore be in a foreign country as well.

Greece

A lease agreement or sub-lease agreement in force is provided by the company to the General Commercial Registry to prove its registered address.

Hong Kong

Limited private companies

None required.

Hungary

Corporate entity's registered seat must be in Hungary. The seat of central administration (place of effective management) of a corporate entity may be located outside of Hungary. From a taxation perspective, this may result in dual tax residency and potential double taxation for Hungarian purposes which can be mitigated based on the provisions of a relevant double tax treaty.

India

Private limited company

Local office or a virtual office capable of accepting letters/post is mandatory before incorporation. The local office address acts as the Registered office of the entity in the Incorporation documents.

Indonesia

Limited liability company

A company incorporated in Indonesia must have a registered office in Indonesia. A lease agreement is one of the supporting documents to be submitted to the OSS agency, BKPM or other government institution when applying for a business license.

Ireland

Private company limited by shares (LTD)

Every company is required to have a registered office address in Ireland. This is not required to be a business or trading address of the company and can be the address of a third party services provider.

 

External company

None but every branch is required to indicate its address in Ireland.

Israel

Company

None required.

Branch / representative office

Not applicable.

Italy

Società a responsabilità limitata (S.r.l.) and Società per azioni (S.p.A.)

Not mandatory. The Italian entity may be domiciled at the bookkeeper office.

Japan

Registered branch

To lease property in the name of a foreign company, most lessors will require a certified copy of the registration with the Legal Affairs Bureau indicating that the foreign company is duly constituted and that the individual representative in Japan has been duly authorized to act on behalf of the company.

Kabushiki-Kaisha (KK)

None required for incorporation.

Godo-Kaisha (GK)

None required for incorporation.

Luxembourg

Private limited liability company (Société à responsabilité limitée or S.à r.l.)

Registered office in Luxembourg required.

Public limited liability company (Société anonyme or S.A.)

Registered office in Luxembourg required.

Special limited partnership (Société en commandite spéciale or SCSp)

Registered office in Luxembourg required.

Malaysia

Not applicable for this jurisdiction.

Mexico

S.A. de C.V.

Not required for incorporation.

S. de R.L. de C.V.

Not required for formation.

S.A.P.I. de C.V.

Not required for incorporation.

Netherlands

Branch office

The head office must either own or lease the office address of the branch in the Netherlands or use domiciliation services of a Dutch Trust company. The office address of the branch must be registered in the Trade Register.

B.V. (private company with limited liability)

None required for incorporation. The office address of the BV must be registered in the Trade Register within 8 days after incorporation. Tax substance rules require that the BV has its office address in the Netherlands.

Co-operative U.A.

None required for incorporation. The office address of the Co-operative must be registered in the Trade Register within eight days after incorporation. Tax substance rules require that the Co-operative has its office address in the Netherlands.

C.V. (a limited partnership)

None required for establishment of the CV. The address of the CV may be outside the Netherlands, if the CV is considered a closed CV for Dutch tax purposes.

New Zealand

Limited liability company

Must have a registered office in New Zealand. This does not have to be owned or leased by the company, but the person who owns or leases that property must consent to it being the registered office of the company. Corporate records (including the share register) are required to be kept and maintained at the registered office.

Branch

Must have a principal place of business in New Zealand. This does not have to be owned or leased by the overseas company.

Norway

Not applicable for this jurisdiction.

Philippines

It is required to indicate a local principal office address. Lease Contract/Accommodation letter is a requirement when applying for a business permit.

Poland

Filing for incorporation requires having a registered office in Poland (this applies to all organizational forms, including branches and representative offices). Proof of the address where the business activity is actually carried out may be required for tax registration purposes.

Portugal

Not applicable for this jurisdiction.

Puerto Rico

Corporations

Not required for incorporation. However, every corporation shall maintain a registered office and a resident agent for service of process in Puerto Rico. Note that office space may be required for certain tax registrations, such as the municipal license tax, that requires a use permit which in turn requires office space in the corporation's name.

Limited Liability Companies

Not required for organization/formation. However, every corporation shall maintain a registered office and a resident agent for service of process in Puerto Rico. Note that office space may be required for certain tax registrations, such as the municipal license tax, which require a use permit, which in turn requires office space in the LLC's name.

Romania

The company must have registered headquarters. Relevant documents attesting the right to use the headquarters are required to be submitted with the Trade Registry.

Russia

Joint-stock company (public and non-public)

Premises are required to be used as a registered legal address of the company, where a sole executive body is supposed to be sitting.

Limited liability company

Premises are required to be used as a registered legal address of the company, where a sole executive body is supposed to be sitting.

Saudi Arabia

Limited liability company

A local office lease and local address is required.

Singapore

Limited liability company

A company incorporated in Singapore must have a registered office in Singapore. DLA Piper Singapore can arrange for a local registered address of a corporate secretarial agent that communications may be sent to for an annual fee.

South Africa

Not applicable for this jurisdiction.

South Korea

Joint-stock company (Jusik Hoesa)

Required for business registration.

Limited company (Yuhan Hoesa)

Required for business registration.

Spain

Not applicable for this jurisdiction.

Sweden

None required for incorporation.

Switzerland

Stock corporation

None required, but in absence of local offices a c/o-address is required.

Taiwan

A local registered office address is required.

Thailand

Not applicable for this jurisdiction.

Turkey

If the company is not the owner of a real estate in Turkey to be used for registered address, the company's office must be on lease for registration purposes.

United Arab Emirates

LLC

Yes, an owned or rented physical office space is required.

Branch

Same as LLC.

FZ-LLC

Generally, a rented physical office (rented/owned) is required in the relevant free zone (possibly including offices from private landlords in the free zone area as approved by the relevant free zone – this depends on the concerned free zone).

FZ-LLC

Same as FZ-LLC

Dual Licence Branch

There is no requirement to lease a separate office and it will be permitted to operate out of the same office space as the parent company. A separate office space is optional.

United Kingdom

Private limited company

Not applicable for this jurisdiction.

Limited liability partnership (LLP)

No statutory requirement. Requirements governed by LLP Agreement.

Registered UK establishment

Not applicable for this jurisdiction.

United States

Not applicable for this jurisdiction.

Vietnam

Generally, the company is required to have its head office in Vietnam.