Hamburger
  • Legal system, currency, language

    Constitutional and civil law with certain application of case law. Pesos (ARS). Spanish.

     

  • Corporate presence requirements & payroll set-up

    A foreign entity cannot hire employees in Argentina without a local corporate presence.

    Employers must pay social security contributions (23% or 27% on top of salaries, depending on the company's activity and revenues). Employees must contribute 17% of their salaries to the social security system (to be withheld by the employer and subject to certain taxable limits). Income tax is also withheld by the employer when paying employees' salaries (maximum rate 35%, subject to a progressive scale).

    Collective bargaining agreements for certain activities provide payments to be made by the employer and/or the unionized employees to the relevant unions.

  • Pre-hire checks

    Required

    • Pre-hire medical checks are required pursuant to resolutions issued by the Occupational Hazard Superintendence. If an employee does not complete a pre-hire medical check, the employee will be deemed to have begun work in optimal health; therefore, any injuries or diseases which subsequently arise will be deemed to have happened during the employment relationship.
    • Criminal record checks are required for foreign employees to obtain a work visa.

    Permissible

    Where criminal checks are not required for work visa purposes, they are only permissible (and often done in practice) for specific roles (eg, high-level managerial positions). Reference and educational checks are common and permissible, provided applicant consent is previously obtained.

  • Immigration

    Foreigners from non-Mercosur countries must obtain a temporary residence permit that permits them to enter and work in Argentina. Temporary residency is granted for a maximum period of up to 1 year, extendable for periods of equal or shorter terms. After 3 consecutive years as a temporary resident, foreign employees are entitled to apply for permanent residence.

    Citizens of Mercosur countries can apply for temporary Mercosur residence in Argentina without the need to present a work contract to the authorities. Temporary Mercosur residence is granted for 2 years and enables the individual to work and to apply for permanent residence on expiry of the temporary residence.

  • Hiring options

    Employee

    Full-time, part-time, fixed-term, indefinite-term employees or trainees.

    The following factors tend to indicate a labor relationship: availability to work for his/her employer; an employer who directs and subordinates the individual; an employer who instructs the services and duties required and creates the individual's schedule. Courts will also look at the extent to which the worker depends economically on the employer.

    Independent contractor

    Contractors should only be engaged where there is no labor relationship, that is, no direction/subordination or economic dependence.

    Misclassification, that is failure to register an individual as an employee, or submission of an incomplete or defective registration, carries the risk of severe sanctions and fines from the authorities (including amounts owed to social security for unpaid contributions). In addition, steep fines are levied upon statutory severance, including the doubling of the amount of severance owed to a (misclassified) employee.

    Agency worker

    Employers can engage workers through agencies. Agencies must be authorized by the authorities to function as an agency.

    The employer will be jointly and severally liable with the agency for all labor obligations arising from the worker's employment.

  • Employment contracts & policies

    Employment contracts

    There is no general, legal requirement to execute employment contracts in a specific form – meaning that they can be in writing, made orally, etc. unless a specific law or collective convention applies and indicates otherwise. Notwithstanding, employers are advised to enter into a written employment contract.

    Probationary periods

    The maximum permitted duration of a probationary period is 3 months. After the end of the 3 month period, the employee will turn into an indefinite term employee.

    Policies

    The law does not require employers to have specific policies in place. Notwithstanding, there are some policies that are strongly recommended to prevent potential conflict, such as bonus policies.

    Third-party approval

    Third-party approval is not required for employment contracts or any policies.

  • Language requirements

    No statutory language requirements; however, in practice, employment contracts are drafted in Spanish.

  • Minimum employment rights

    Employees entitled to minimum employment rights

    The Employment Contract Law No. 20,744 (LCL) governs the minimum employment rights in Argentina.

    Pursuant to Article 3º of the LCL, the law governs everything related to the validity, rights and obligations of the parties, provided the employment contract is performed in Argentina, even if the contract was entered into abroad.

    The LCL applies to "workers" which covers not only employees working under an employment contract, but also other individuals who personally perform "work" or provide services for the employer.

    For this purpose, "work" should be understood as any legitimate activity that is provided in favor of someone who has the power to direct that work, through the payment of remuneration for those activities and/or services rendered.

    The main factors that will tend to indicate that an individual is an employee rather than a worker or self-employed worker, are:

    • The employee must be available to work for his/her employer
    • The employer will direct and subordinate the employee, appoint the services and duties required and order the employee to comply with a schedule

    Courts will also weigh the extent to which the worker depends economically on the income obtained from the alleged employer.

    Working hours

    The general maximum number of hours is 8 hours per day or 48 hours per week for all employed workers in public or private enterprises. Each extra hour worked above these limits is deemed to be overtime.

    Notwithstanding the foregoing, Article No. 3 of Law No. 11,544, in its subsections a), b) and c) regulates exceptions to the abovementioned maximum limitation on working hours. The limitations do not apply to employees performing duties under the form of a "job team," that is, working in a special coordinating rotation system, nor to employees performing duties in high-level positions (main managers, directors etc.).

    Overtime

    Employees in Argentina are allowed to perform overtime. Overtime will be only compulsory in cases of danger or accidents or imminent force majeure, or by exceptional demands of the national economy or the company (Article No. 203 of the LCL).

    Overtime must be paid with a surcharge of 50%, calculated using the employee's usual salary if the overtime hours were worked during business days, and 100% on Saturday after 1pm, Sunday or holidays. In no event may employees work overtime of more than, 3 hours per day, 30 hours per month or 200 hours per calendar year.

    Wages

    The national minimum wage (NMW) is updated regularly by the National Council of Employment dependent of the Ministry of Production and Labor. The NMW rate as of December 2018 is AR$11,300.

    Most CBAs also provide for a specific minimum wage applicable to employees subject to the CBA.

    Vacation

    Employees with less than 5 years seniority are entitled to 14 calendar days after 6 months of work. This increases to 21 calendar days for employees with between 5 to 10 years of seniority; 28 days for employees with between 10 to 20 years of seniority, and 35 days for employees with more than 20 years of seniority. For employees with less than 6 months of service, employers must grant 1 day of vacation per worked month. Companies should grant vacation to their employees between October 1 to April 30 of the following year.

    Sick leave & pay

    Sick/accident leave of up to 3 months per year must be provided to employees with less than 5 years of seniority, while 6 months must be granted to employees with seniority of 5 years or longer. For employees with "family dependents" (generally understood to be the immediate family that economically depends on the employee’s wage and labor benefits), these periods are doubled, to 6 and 12 months, respectively.

    Maternity/parental leave & pay

    Pregnant employees may take leave of 45 days prior to giving birth and up to 45 days after giving birth. However, the employee may choose to reduce the leave prior to giving birth, but it may not be less than 30 days, and add those days to the maternity leave period after the birth of the child. In the event of premature birth, the period of the leave that has not been enjoyed before the birth will be added to the leave period after the childbirth. Further, the employee is entitled to earn her gross remuneration (without any withholding contributions made to the social security system), during maternity leave. The ANSES (as defined below) pays the remuneration of employees during maternity leave.

    Fathers are entitled to paid leave of 2 consecutive days for the birth of his child. There is no general regulation providing other parental leave after the birth of a child. 

  • Discrimination

    The law prohibits discriminatory acts or omissions based on race, religion, nationality, ideology, political or trade union opinion, sex, economic position, social condition or physical characteristics.

    In addition, Argentina has ratified international antidiscrimination conventions, such as the Convention of Belem do Pará and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women.

  • Benefits & pensions

    The Social Security National Administration (Administración Nacional de la Seguridad Social, hereinafter ANSES) is the authority in charge of the administration of the social security system in Argentina, called Sistema Integrado de Jubilaciones y Pensiones (SIJP). Employers and employees are required to make contributions to the SIJP which provides for old age pension and disability benefits.

    To qualify for a statefunded pension distribution, male employees must be 65 years old, while female employees must be 60 years old. In both cases, in order to qualify for pension the employee must have contributed to the SIJP for a minimum of 30 years.

    Employers do not have a legal obligation to provide a private pension scheme for employees, as the employees are entitled to state pensions.

  • Data privacy

    The Data Privacy Law No. 24,766 sets limits to the type of personal data that may be collected by prohibiting the collection of sensitive personal data, such as data that is related to political or religious opinions, and regulates the collection, use, processing and transfer of personal data.

    Employers are allowed to monitor employee's work devices, provided the employee is duly notified in advance, and personal information is safeguarded and not disclosed.

  • Rules in transactions/business transfers

    Where there is an asset transfer that qualifies as a business transfer, all obligations arising from the employment contracts that the transferor has executed with its employees will be taken on by the transferee after the transfer. Employment contracts will continue with the transferee and the employees will retain their seniority with the transferor and the rights arising from it. Therefore, on the execution of the transfer, all employees are automatically transferred to the transferee, after their written consent has been obtained.

    Although in practice both internal consultations and collective consultation with trade unions are held before a business transfer takes place, the transferor and the transferee are not required by law to inform or consult employees on a business transfer. However, in order to perform the transfer of staff, the employee’s written consent must be given prior to the transfer. In the absence of this consent, the employee may terminate the employment, with the right to compensation.

    The transferor and the transferee will be jointly and severally liable for any dismissals that arise due to the transfer.

  • Employee representation

    Argentina is a highly unionized country with approximately 3,100 active trade unions with considerable political power. There are unions in nearly all sectors or industries.

    A trade union must be recognized by the Ministry of Production and Labor. Only recognized and authorized unions can enter into a CBA. Employers cannot recognize an unauthorized union voluntarily, not even for collective bargaining purposes.

    The National Constitution sets out collective labor rights in its Article No. 14 (bis), guaranteeing unions the right to collectively bargain and the right to strike.

    CBAs are very common in Argentina. There are different types of CBAs depending on the territory in which they are going to be enforceable. Some CBAs only govern employees within one specific company, whereas other CBAs govern employees performing certain activities in a geographical region or industry.

  • Termination

    Grounds

    Cause is not required for termination of employment; however, it is required to avoid payment of statutory severance. There is no exhaustive and/or exemplary list of behaviors that constitute cause for dismissal; therefore, whether a dismissal is with or without cause will depend on judicial judgment on a case by case basis. 

    Who is subject to termination laws?

    All employees.

    Prohibited or restricted terminations

    Public employees and union delegates cannot be dismissed without cause and without complying with the statutory procedure for these terminations. All other employees can be dismissed with payment of statutory severance, which will differ based on the case (maternity, illness, etc.)

    Pregnant employees are protected from dismissal. If a pregnant employee is dismissed within the period of 7-1/2 months before or after the date of childbirth, the pregnancy will be considered to be the cause of the dismissal, entitling the employee compensation for the discrimination equivalent to their annual salary, in addition to the applicable severance payment.

    Further, if a dismissal occurs 3 months before the marriage of an employee, or 6 months after it, the dismissed employee will be entitled to a special compensation.

    In order to dismiss employees on sick leave, employers must pay a special severance (full severance payment applicable for dismissal without cause, plus the salary which would be payable for the entire period the illness would be expected to last, according to medical opinion).

    Third-party approval for termination/termination documents

    Under Decree No. 1043/18 (effective as of November 14, 2018), employers wishing to dismiss indefinite term employees without cause must notify the Ministry of Production and Labor at least 10 business days before the decision goes into effect. This Decree is effective through March 31, 2019.

    As this decree was issued recently, there is no administrative or judicial case law interpreting the Decree.

    Mass layoff rules

    Prior to a mass dismissal, an employer must provide notice to the respective trade union that regulates the employer's industry. Collective consultation may be required depending on employee headcount.

    Prior to executing or communicating dismissals or suspensions due to force majeure, economic or technological causes that affects more than:

    • 15% of the employees where total headcount is less than 400
    • 10% of the employees where total headcount is between 400 and 1,000 and
    • 5% of the employees where total headcount is greater than 1,000

    Employers must comply with the Preventive Procedure of Companies Crisis (PPC) before the Ministry of Production and Labor. During this procedure, the company will engage in negotiation with the respective union acting on behalf of their members. The aim of this procedure is to avoid business shutdowns or bankruptcy. After the company files the request at the Ministry of Production and Labor, the Ministry will forward the claim within 2 business days of the filing to the other party for its response. After a response is made, a settlement hearing will be scheduled within the next 5 business days. If a settlement is not reached, the Ministry will open a "negotiating period" that must not extend beyond 10 business days. If the parties still do not reach to an agreement within that period, the PPC process will conclude. Notwithstanding this, in practice, this procedure normally takes longer than the law sets out.

    Notice

    In order to proceed with termination, employers must give notice to employees before the dismissal. 

    The term of this notice will depend on the seniority of employees:

    • During their probationary period, notice must be given to employees 15 days before termination
    • In order to dismiss employees who have completed the probationary period but who have less than 5 years of seniority, notice must be given 1 month prior to the dismissal and
    • Employees with more than 5 years' seniority must receive 2 months' notice before their dismissal

    Statutory right to pay in lieu of notice or garden leave

    Employers are permitted to pay in lieu of notice. Current legislation does not regulate nor prohibit garden leave.

    Severance

    An employee who is dismissed without reasonable cause is entitled to statutory severance of 1 month's salary for each year of service, or period longer than 3 months. This amount is calculated using the employee's highest monthly, regular compensation received in the last 12 months of work. This baseline cannot be more than 3 times the "monthly payment," which is the average of all compensation set out in the applicable CBA at the time of the dismissal (this average is periodically published). The Ministry of Production and Labor governs the updating of this average for every authorized trade union.  

    If the employee is not subject to a CBA (typically, senior employees), the limits applicable to the activity in which he/she performs duties will apply. In no case will the amount of the compensation payable be less than 1 month of real salary.

    Currently, in the Vizotti case, the Supreme Court of Justice has raised the basis for calculating compensation subject to a limit, establishing that it will be 67% of the employee's monthly and usual compensation, the amount to be multiplied by the years of service of the employee, based on constitutional reasons and in cases where the application of the legal limit imposes a reduction to the severance payment of more than 33%.

    This severance payment may be reduced or increased in other types of termination (eg, force majeure and lack or reduction of work; death of the employee; employer's bankruptcy; employee's retirement; employee's illness; employee's pregnancy; etc.)

  • Post-termination restraints

    Non-compete, customer non-solicitation and employee non-solicitation clauses are often used, especially when the employer and employee negotiate the terms and conditions of the termination of the employment.

    Restrictive covenants are capable of being enforced post-employment, provided the employee receives compensation for the restrictions. Therefore, consideration is required for valid restrictive covenants. The amount must be fair and in accordance with the salary of the employee, his/her position in the company, the agreements that the company intends to impose and the extent (period and territory) of the restrictive covenant.

    The law does not specifically regulate restrictive covenants. However, most restrictive periods range between 2 years to 5 years. However, under certain circumstances the court has enforced a 10 year post-termination restraint period, based on the business and the amount of consideration paid to the employee.

    Where an employee is in breach of an agreement, the employer can file a claim against the employee in court requesting compensation for damages. The complaint may include injunctive relief to stop the violation immediately. Alternatively, courts may declare the covenant null and void if it has been drafted too widely.

  • Waivers

    Pursuant to the LCL, any executed agreement that suppresses or reduces rights granted by the LCL, labor laws related to specific industries, collective agreements or individual employment contracts, either at the time of their agreement or execution, or the exercise of the rights arising from its termination, shall be null and void.

  • Remedies

    Discrimination

    Compensation is available as a remedy for discrimination or harassment. In case the event of a complaint based on harassment, the employee can file a claim requesting the payment of the statutory severance payment applicable to dismissals without cause and an additional amount for the pain and/or emotional distress caused by the harassment.

    Employers are liable for the acts of their employees. Therefore, the employer and the harasser will be declared jointly and severally liable for the payment of any compensation granted to the victim.

    Unfair dismissal

    Employees may challenge a dismissal without cause within 2 years of the dismissal and seek payment of statutory severance, plus interest and court fees. The complaint must be filed before the labor courts.

    Failure to inform & consult

    Not applicable for terminations as there are no consultation obligations.

  • Criminal sanctions

    Breaches of labor law do not entail a criminal breach or sanction unless such a breach or offense is specifically regulated by the National Criminal Code as a crime. In that case, criminal sanctions will be applied for the breach of criminal law and not for the breach of labor law.

  • Key contacts
    Osvaldo Jofre
    Osvaldo Jofre
    Cordova Francos [email protected]

Legal system, currency, language

Argentina

Constitutional and civil law with certain application of case law. Pesos (ARS). Spanish.

 

Australia

Common law jurisdiction with employment laws that operate at both the federal and state levels. Australian Dollar (AU$). English.

Austria

Civil law. Member of the European Union (EU), so required to implement relevant EU Directives. Euro (€). German.

Bahrain

Civil law system — employment matters are governed by Law No. 36 of 2012 (Labor Law) as amended. Bahraini Dinar (BHD). Official language is Arabic.

Belgium

Civil law. Member of European Union (EU), so required to implement relevant EU Directives. Euro (€). Dutch, French and German.

Brazil

Civil law. Brazilian Real (R$). Portuguese. 

Canada

Common law throughout the majority of the country, civil law in the province of Quebec. Canadian dollar (CAD). English and French are both official languages.

Chile

Continental Law, Chilean Peso (CLP), Spanish.

China

Civil law. Chinese Renminbi (CNY). Mandarin.

Colombia

Civil law. Colombian Peso (COP $). Spanish.

Czech Republic

Civil law. Member of the European Union. Czech Crown (CZK). Czech.

Denmark

Civil Law. Member of the EU and required to implement relevant EU Directives. Danish kroner (DKK). Danish.

Finland

Civil law. Member of the European Union (EU), so required to implement relevant EU Directives. Euro (€). Finnish and Swedish.

France

Civil law. Member of the European Union (EU), so required to implement relevant EU Directives. Euro (). French.

Germany

Civil law. Member of the European Union (EU), so required to implement relevant EU Directives. Euro (€). German.

Hong Kong

Common law. The Basic Law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR) provides that courts of HKSAR may refer to the precedents of other common law jurisdictions when making decisions. Hong Kong dollar (HK$). English and Chinese.

Hungary

Civil law. Member of the European Union (EU), so required to implement relevant EU Directives. Hungarian Forint (HUF). Hungarian.

India

India uses a common law legal system, except in the State of Goa, which has a civil code. Indian Rupee (INR). India is a multi-linguistic country with many languages and dialects across the country. The official languages of the Union Government are Hindi and English. Individual states are able to set their own official language.

Indonesia

Civil law. Indonesian Rupiah (IDR). Bahasa Indonesia.

Ireland

Common law. Member of the European Union (EU), so required to implement relevant EU Directives. Euro (€). English.

Israel

Strong common law heritage with elements from other legal systems. New Israeli Shekel (ILS). Hebrew and Arabic (English commonly spoken).

Italy

Civil law. Member of European Union (EU), so required to implement relevant EU Directives. Euro (€). Italian.

Japan

Civil law. Japanese yen (JPY). Japanese.

Kenya

Common law. Kenya Shilling (KES or Ksh.) Swahili and English.

Kuwait

Civil law — employment matters are governed by Law No. 6 of 2010 (the Labor Law)(as amended). There are also relevant provisions in the Penal Code and Civil Code. Kuwaiti Dinar (KD). Arabic.

Luxembourg

Civil law. Member of the European Union (EU), so required to implement relevant EU directives. Euro (€). French, German and Luxembourgish.

Malaysia

Common law and statute. Malaysian Ringgit(MYR)/Ringgit Malaysia(RM). Malay/Bahasa Malaysia and English.

Mexico

Civil law. Mexican Peso (MX$). Spanish.

Morocco

Civil law, inspired by French law. Moroccan Dirhams (MAD). Official language is Arabic, but French is common for business purposes.

Mozambique

Civil law. Mozambican Metical (MZM). Portuguese.

Myanmar

New civil laws co-exist with the old British colonial laws and regulations, and the laws and regulations issued by the various military governments over the last fifty years. Further, there has been a liberal application over the last few decades of "policies and practices," which are not detailed in any laws or regulations and are often unpublished.

Myanmar/Burmese Kyat (MMK).

The official language is Burmese. English has become increasingly popular in the business community. In practice, dual language (Burmese/English) contracts will be required to ensure that all parties understand the contents of the employment contract.

Netherlands

Civil law. Member of the European Union, so required to implement relevant EU Directives. Euro (€). Dutch.

New Zealand

Common law. New Zealand Dollar (NZ$). English.

Nigeria

The legal system in Nigeria consists of a) Nigerian legislation, b) English law, which includes the common law, doctrine of equity and statutes of general application in force in England on January 1, 1900, c) Sharia law (applicable in some parts of the North) and customary law and d) judicial precedent.

Nigerian Naira (NGN).

English.

Norway

Civil law. Norwegian Kroner (NOK). Norwegian.

Oman

Federal and civil legal system — employment matters are governed by the Oman Labor Law issued by Royal Decree 35/2003 (Labor Law) (as amended). There are also relevant provisions in the Penal Code and Civil Code. Omani Rial (OMR). Arabic.

Philippines

Civil law, Philippine Peso (PhP), English and Filipino

Poland

Civil law. Member of the European Union (EU), so required to implement relevant EU Directives. Polish zloty (PLN). Polish.

Portugal

Civil law. Member of European Union (EU), so required to implement relevant EU Directives. Euro (€). Portuguese.

Qatar

Employment matters are predominately governed by Law No. 14 of 2004 (the Labor Law) (as amended). There are also relevant provisions in Law No (21) of 2015 (Sponsorship Law) (as amended) that primarily govern the sponsorship, residence and exit of expatriate employees.

Companies established in the Qatar Financial Centre (QFC) will be governed by QFC laws and regulations with the primary employment law provisions being contained in QFC Regulation No (10) of 2006 (Employment Regulations) (as amended) and QFC Regulation No (11) of 2006  (Immigration Regulations)(as amended). This guide focuses on the State of Qatar (Qatar) labor laws.

The local currency in Qatar is the Qatari Riyal (QAR). The QAR is pegged to the US dollar. The official language of Qatar is Arabic. All legislation in Qatar is drafted and issued in Arabic and all Qatari court proceedings are heard in Arabic.

Romania

Civil law. Member of the European Union (EU), so required to implement relevant EU Directives. Romanian Leu (RON). Romanian.

Russia

Civil law. Russian Ruble (RUB). Russian.

Saudi Arabia

Sharia law. Member of the Gulf Coordination Council (GCC), therefore required to implement the relevant GCC laws. Saudi Arabian Riyal (SAR). Arabic.

Singapore

Common law. Singapore Dollar (SGD). English, Chinese, Malay and Tamil. English is the main language of law and business.

Slovak Republic

Civil law. Member of the European Union (EU), so required to implement relevant EU Directives. Euro (€). Slovak.

South Africa

Common law, civil law and customary law, subject to the Constitution. South African Rand (ZAR). 11 official languages: Afrikaans, English, Ndebele, Northern Sotho, Sotho, Swazi, Tswana, Tsonga, Venda, Xhosa and Zulu.

South Korea

Civil law, though court precedents play an important role. South Korean Won (KRW). Korean.

Spain

Civil law. Member of European Union (EU), so required to implement relevant EU Directives. Euro (€). Spanish.

Sweden

Civil law. Member of European Union (EU), so required to implement relevant EU Directives. Swedish Krona (SEK). Swedish language.

Switzerland

Civil law. Not a member of the European Union (EU), but member of the European Free Trade Association (EFTA). Swiss Francs (CHF). German, French, and Italian.

Taiwan

Civil law. New Taiwan dollar (TW$). Mandarin.

Thailand

Civil law based on various laws and practices, in particular Napoleonic Code and German civil law. Thai Baht (THB). Thai.

Turkey

Civil law. Turkish Lira (TRY). Turkish.

Uganda

Common law. Uganda Shilling (UGX). Member of the African Union (AU), so required to implement relevant AU Directives. English.

Ukraine

Civil law. Hryvnia (UAH). Ukrainian.

United Arab Emirates

Federal and Civil legal system; employment matters are governed by Federal Law No. 8 of 1980 (the Labor Law) (as amended). There are also relevant provisions in the Penal Code and Civil Code. Dirhams (AED). Official language is Arabic.

United Kingdom

Common Law. Pound Sterling (GBP or £). Member of the EU and required to implement relevant EU Directives. NB, however, the UK is scheduled to leave the EU on March 39, 2019. At present, it is intended that there will be a transitional period until December 31, 2020 during which time the UK will still be subject to EU rules. However, the terms of the withdrawal agreement have not yet been approved by the UK Parliament and significant uncertainties remain over the final terms which will be agreed. A no-deal exit is also a possibility.  

English language.

United States

Combination of federal statutory law, state statutory and common law, and local statutory law. Regulations vary significantly from state to state. US Dollar ($). English.

Venezuela

Civil law. Venezuelan Bolívar (VES). Spanish and Venezuelan native languages.

Vietnam

Civil law. Vietnamese Dong (VND). Vietnamese, but English has become increasingly popular in the business community.