• Legal system, currency, language

    Constitutional. The official currency is the Kwanza (AOA). The official language is Portuguese.

  • Corporate presence requirements & payroll set-up

    A foreign entity may engage employees in Angola with proper payroll registrations, subject to business, corporate and tax considerations. The employer is responsible for withholding from an employee's pay, and delivering to the tax authority, income tax and contributions to Angolan social security. The level of income tax is defined by the government and varies in line with the employee's salary.

  • Pre-hire checks


    Immigration compliance and pre-hire medical examinations.


    Reference and education checks are permissible.

  • Immigration

    Criminal and medical checks must be issued by competent authorities, a criminal record must be issued by the home country and a medical certificate must be issued by a doctor in the employee’s home country.

    The visa/work permit requirements for overseas nationals to work in Angola are having a recognized travel document valid for the Angolan territory for at least 6 months, being of legal age, not being included in the national list of undesirable persons prohibited from entering into the national territory, not constituting a danger to public order or to social security interests, complying with all health regulations established by the Ministry of Health for entry into the national territory, having an employment contract or promissory employment contract, having a certificate of professional and educational qualifications and curriculum vitae, and obtaining a positive opinion of the competent Ministry.

  • Hiring options


    Indefinite-term contract (which is the rule), fixed-term or open-term (ie, a term contract whose termination date has not yet been defined, but that will be terminated as soon as the underlying need for contracting is no longer verified – for example, as a contract to cover absence), part-time contract, telework contract and contract under service commission regime – a particular type of contract for high-level employees which provides flexibility for termination and is not common. The parties may execute an employment contract for a fixed term or open term, which must be done in writing. Part-time, fixed-term and open-term employees may not be discriminated against due to their status.

    Independent contractor

    Independent contractors may be engaged directly by the company or via a personal services company. Engagement may be subject to misclassification exposure. The factors that tend to indicate an individual is an employee (rather than, for example, a self-employed independent contractor) are the existence of a work schedule, the scheduling of vacation, the worker’s legal subordination to the company, the company’s authority, direction and disciplinary powers, control of punctuality and attendance over the individual, integration into the structure of the company and use of work tools belonging to the company, among others.

    In the event of misclassification, the relationship may be converted into an employment relationship on a permanent basis, and the employer may be liable to pay: a fine for non-compliance, employment entitlements owed as of the commencement of the activity and social security contributions.

    Agency worker

    Agency workers may only be engaged to fulfill a temporary need for work. The agency work contract duration depends on the underlying reason for hiring and does not typically exceed 24 months. Agency workers have the right to equal treatment to employees in relation to pay and other regular benefits.

  • Employment contracts & policies

    Employment contracts

    Written employment contracts are common but not mandatory, except for fixed-term, part-time, telework and service commission regime contracts as well as contracts with foreign employees and underage employees. Employment contracts cannot contain conditions that are less favorable to employees than mandatory employment legislation.

    Probationary periods


    Employment contracts for an unlimited period of time may be subject to a probation period corresponding to the first 60 days of performance of work; the parties may, by written agreement, reduce or waive this period.

    The parties may extend the probation period, in writing, to up to 6 months in case of employees who perform management duties.

    In an employment contract for a fixed-term, the parties may set forth a probation period in writing, and its duration cannot exceed 30 days.


    Employers with more than 50 employees must, in order to organize the work and labor discipline, draft and approve work rules or policies defining rules for the technical organization of work, work discipline, safety, hygiene and health protection of work, performance indicators, a remuneration system, working hours for the several sections of the company or work center, control of entrances and exits and circulation within the premises of the company, and surveillance and control of production.

    Employers with 50 or fewer employees may, but are not required to, implement employee policies or handbooks on the matters described above.

    Third-party approval

    Whenever the employee’s handbook or any other rules and regulations establish rules on performance and discipline, remuneration systems, work performance or safety, hygiene and health protection at work, the employer must forward such regulations for information and registration purposes to the General Labor Inspectorate.

  • Language requirements

    Portuguese. Nevertheless, employment contracts and other documents may be drafted in a bilingual template.

  • Working time, time off work & minimum wage

    Employees entitled to minimum employment rights

    All employees are entitled to minimum employment rights.

    Working hours

    Maximum daily and weekly working hours are 8 hours per day and 44 hours per week. Overtime pay is required for hours worked in excess of these limits. These limits may be inapplicable to employees who perform direction and leadership duties, duties of inspection, or provide direct support to the employer, teleworking employees and for other employees who regularly perform their duties away from the workplace , without the immediate control of their manager or performance of work which, by its nature, can only be carried out outside the limits of working hours (ie, employees who may be exempt from a work schedule). The corresponding written agreement, ie, the agreement establishing exemption from work schedule for one of the above mentioned reasons) shall be included in the employee’s individual file. Typically, employees under exemption regime are entitled to an exemption bonus.


    Overtime may occur with an extraordinary increase in workload, to prevent serious damage or if due to force majeure. It is subject to the following maximum limits: (a) 2 hours per day, (b) 40 hours per month and (c) 200 hours per year.

    Each hour of overtime work is compensated with additional payment of up to 30 hours per month, corresponding to 50 percent of the value of the normal working hour. Overtime exceeding that limit is compensated with additional payment of 75 percent for each hour.

    For purposes of payment for overtime work:

    (a) fractions of time of less than 15 minutes are not considered;

    (b) fractions of time between 15 and 44 minutes are considered as half an hour;

    (c) fractions of time between 45 and 60 minutes are counted as 1 hour;

    (d) work performed on the day or half-day of complementary weekly rest is considered a normal working day.

    Employees who perform overtime work that prevents them from taking daily rest are entitled to paid compensatory rest equivalent to the hours of rest missed, to be taken on the following working day. Employees who perform overtime work on a mandatory weekly rest day are entitled to a paid compensatory rest day, to be taken on the following working day.


    The minimum wage is established by Presidential Decree. It is set out as a general minimum wage, but there is also a minimum wage for trade and extractive industry groups, transport services and manufacturing groups and agriculture groups. Under the Decree currently in force, the general minimum wage is AOA32,181.15. The following sector-specific minimum wages also apply:

    • Trade and extractive industry groups: AOA48,271.73

    • Transport services and manufacturing groups: AOA40,226.44 and

    • Agriculture groups: AOA32,181.15.


    Minimum 22 working days per year, plus 12 public national holidays.

    Sick leave & pay

    Employees are entitled to take off as much time as they need for sick leave. In this case, the employer continues to pay the employee’s salary for a period of 6 months, with the right of reimbursement from Social Security. For fixed-term employees, the obligation to pay salary ceases on the date of expiry of the fixed-term contract if the illness continues after that date.

    Employees can take up to 8 paid working days of leave per year to provide unavoidable assistance to members of the family, in case of illness or accident of the spouse, parents and children up to the age of 18.

    Maternity/parental leave & pay

    A pregnant employee is entitled to a paid maternity leave of 3 months. The amount of the maternity allowance is equal to the average of the 2 best monthly salaries from the 6 months preceding the commencement of the maternity leave. The maternity allowance is paid directly by the employer to the employee and, subsequently, the Social Security services reimburses the employer in full. Fathers are not entitled to any paid leave on the birth of a child; it is only considered as a justifiable reason for absence from work for 1 day. The father is also entitled to an unpaid supplementary leave of 7 consecutive or non-consecutive working days.

    Fathers are also entitled to replace the mother of their newborn child while on maternity leave in the event of the mother's proven physical or mental incapacity for the duration of the incapacity or in case of mother's death.

    Other leave/time off work

    Employees may also be entitled to leave for other purposes, such as for their wedding; relatives’ death, fulfillment of legal or military obligations which must be performed within the normal working period; attendance to tests by working students; attendance of training, professional proficiency, professional qualification or job conversion courses authorized by the employer; participation in cultural or sporting activities, either in representation of the country or the company or in official contests; the performance of necessary and urgent action in the exercise of leading tasks in labor unions as a union representative or as a member of the employee’s representative body; or the participation of the employee as a candidate to general or municipal elections approved by the competent authority.

  • Discrimination & harassment

    Discrimination based on the following protected characteristics is prohibited: race, color, gender, ethnic origin, marital status, origin or social rank, religious beliefs, political opinion, union affiliation and language.

  • Whistleblowing

    There is no special provision in this regard in Angola. Protection is only granted in the course of criminal action at the request of a whistleblower or by decision of the Public Prosecutor's Office.

  • Benefits & pensions

    Both employer and employee must pay contributions to social security in Angola to cover various employee benefits (eg, maternity leave payment and retirement pension). The employer must withhold the contribution due by the employee and deliver both contributions (ie, employer and employee) to social security every month.

    Current general rates are 3 percent of the gross wage for the employee and 8 percent for the employer.

    Employees with a minimum contributory period (ie, 35 years) qualify for a retirement pension at age 60 or in cases of total incapacity.

    Employers have no legal obligation to provide complementary or supplementary social benefits in addition to the social coverage provided for by the social public scheme. However, some companies – mostly large companies or multinational companies who have their own schemes worldwide – set up and provide private complementary health and pension schemes to their employees.

  • Data privacy

    The Data Privacy Law No. 22/11, June 17 governs Angolan data privacy and determines, in general terms, how to collect, use, disclose, store and give access to "personal information." 

    As a general rule, employers cannot require job applicants or employees to provide information about their life, health or pregnancy status.

    Job applicants or employees who have provided information containing personal data have the right to control their personal data, and may be informed of its content and the purposes for which it is intended, as well as demand that it be rectified and removed.

  • Rules in transactions/business transfers

    Provided that the same business activity is maintained, the new employer takes the position of the former employer in the employment contracts and takes their position in respect of the rights and obligations arising from the employment relationships. This is the case even if the employment contract is terminated before the transfer. The new employer takes their position as the employer of such former employees in respect of due and non-paid credits. Employees keep the same seniority and acquired rights which they had in the service of their former employer.

    The transferor must inform the employees' representative bodies or, in the absence of such bodies, the employees themselves of the transfer of the undertaking or establishment, the reasons for it and the date on which it is to take effect, its consequences for the employees and the measures envisaged for them.

    Employees must be informed in writing at least 22 working days before the transfer takes place or by posting a notice on the company's premises in the most accessible and visible places.

    The new employer must communicate the change of employer to the General Labor Inspectorate. The communication must be served within 15 business days following the transfer, stating the reason for the transfer and the future status of the employees.

    The transferor must inform the transferee of the terms and conditions that govern the employment relationship.

    Within 22 business days following the change of employer, the employees have the right to terminate the employment contract with prior notice, but this does not confer any right to compensation.

  • Employee representation

    Employee representative bodies are permissible but not mandatory.

    Trade unions are not common in Angola.

    In order to carry out their duties, trade union representatives are entitled to the following paid absences:

    1. 4 working days per month for carrying out duties as a member of the union's executive body;
    2. 4 or 5 hours per month for each union delegate or each member of the workers' representative body, depending on whether there are up to 200 or more employees affiliated to the respective unions at the work center.

    The employee must notify the employer in advance of the date and number of days they require for the exercise of trade union functions. Employers are obliged to provide a suitable place for workers' meetings whenever this is requested by the union representatives. Special protections against dismissal are granted to employees who perform, or have performed, duties as union representatives, either as leaders or delegates, or members of the employees’ representative body performing union-related activities.

  • Termination


    Unilateral termination by the employer: dismissal based on objective grounds (ie, redundancy reasons); disciplinary dismissal with just cause (ie, based on serious breach of the employee's duties).

    Termination without cause (with notice): only for employees hired under an employment contract of service commission regime (a particular type of contract for high-level employees which provides flexibility for termination but is not common).

    Other termination causes: mutual agreement, termination by the employee (ie, termination with notice or constructive dismissal with just cause), expiration (ie, fixed-term and open-term contracts or retirement).

    Employees subject to termination laws

    All employees.

    Restricted or prohibited terminations

    Special protection against dismissal is granted to employees who perform, or have performed, duties as union representatives, either as leaders or delegates, or members of the employees’ representative body performing activities; women covered by the regime of maternity protection; war veterans as per the definition provided by the applicable law; employees under the legal age; employees with a reduced work capacity or with a disability degree equal or higher than 20 percent.

    As a general rule, a copy of the notice served on the employee must be forwarded to General Labor Inspectorate.

    Third-party approval for termination/termination documents

    Except in respect of protected employees, third-party approval is not required to terminate an employment.

    Mass layoff rules

    If economic, technological or structural circumstances occur, which may be clearly demonstrated and which involve an internal reorganization or conversion, or the reduction or the shutting down of activities, which makes it necessary to eliminate or significantly change job positions, the employer may terminate the employment contracts of the employees who perform such job positions.

    Collective dismissal rules are triggered if the dismissal involves at least 6 employees.

    Information to the General Labor Inspectorate is required. However, there is no need to obtain approval for termination.

    The General Labor Inspectorate may undertake the diligence deemed necessary for clarification of the situation and, in case of a collective dismissal, during the period in which the evaluation of the General Labor Inspectorate occurs, the employer may promote a meeting with the representative body or with the committee appointed for the purpose of exchange of information and clarification and may forward the conclusions of the meetings to the General Labor Inspectorate.


    For individual dismissals based on objective grounds (up to 5 employees): the employer must forward, at least 30 days in advance, prior notice of dismissal to the employee or employees who occupy the job positions to be extinguished or transformed.

    For collective dismissal: the prior notice is 60 days.

    Notice periods in case of a fixed-term contract where the termination occurs by expiration: 30 days.

    Statutory right to pay in lieu of notice or garden leave

    Payment in lieu of notice is permitted (and required if the notice period is not honored).

    Garden leave is allowed during the notice period.


    Fair dismissal based on objective grounds (redundancy/collective dismissal):

    • 1 monthly base salary multiplied by the number of years of service up to 5 years, and .5 base salary multiplied by the number of years of seniority exceeding 5 years.
    • Fair disciplinary dismissal: no severance.
    • Higher severance payments may be agreed and are usual as a way to avoid litigation.   
  • Post-termination restraints

    A clause of the employment contract which restricts the activity of the employee for a period of time, which may not exceed 3 years from the termination of the contract, is lawful if the following conditions are met: (a) such clause is included, in writing, in the employment contract, or in its addendum; (b) the activity performed may cause real damage to the employer and may be considered as unfair competition; (c) the employee is paid a salary during the period of restriction of work: the corresponding amount will be included in the contract or its addendum.

    A clause which requires an employee who benefits from professional improvement or higher level education at the expense of the employer to remain at the service of the same employer for a certain period of time, provided that such period does not exceed 1 year, in case of training of professional improvement and up to 3 years in case of courses of high level education, is also lawful if established in writing. In this case, the employee may release themselves from remaining at the employer’s service by repaying to the employer the amount of the expenses incurred by the employer, in proportion to the remaining time until the term of the agreed period. The employer that hires the employee within the period of restriction of activity in the company is jointly liable for the damages caused by the employee or for the amount not returned by the employee.

  • Waivers

    In principle, statutory rights cannot be waived and any waiver of such rights will be null and void.

  • Remedies


    Fine corresponding to 5 to 10 times the average salary paid by the company.

    Unfair Dismissal

    The employee may challenge the validity of the dismissal before the labor courts.

    If the relevant court declares the dismissal to be unlawful, by final judgment, the employer must immediately reinstate the employee in the same job position and benefiting from the same previous conditions and compensate the employee for all damage caused, both pecuniary and non-pecuniary.

    In addition to reinstatement and compensation, the employee is entitled to the base salary they would have received if they had continued to perform work, until the date of final judgment, less the amount of salary for the period from the date of dismissal until 30 days before the legal proceedings are initiated, if the legal action is not brought within 30 days of the dismissal. The amount due is always limited to a maximum of 6 months’ salary.

    If reinstatement is not possible or the employee does not want reinstatement, the employer must compensate the employee by paying them compensation corresponding to their base salary as of the date of dismissal multiplied by the number of years of their seniority, with the minimum amount corresponding to 3 months’ base salary.

    Failure to inform and consult

    Not applicable.

  • Criminal sanctions

    Typically, non-compliance with employment laws leads to administrative proceedings which may lead to the payment of fines. If such non-compliance is based on violation of rights that deserve protection under criminal law, it may also lead to this type of judicial proceedings.

  • Key contacts
    João Guedes
    João Guedes
    Partner DLA Piper [email protected] View bio
    Daniela Rosa
    Daniela Rosa
    Senior Associate DLA Piper [email protected] View bio
    Islândia Ribeiro
    Islândia Ribeiro
    Senior Associate DLA Piper Africa [email protected] T +244 923 612 525 View bio



Criminal and medical checks must be issued by competent authorities, a criminal record must be issued by the home country and a medical certificate must be issued by a doctor in the employee’s home country.

The visa/work permit requirements for overseas nationals to work in Angola are having a recognized travel document valid for the Angolan territory for at least 6 months, being of legal age, not being included in the national list of undesirable persons prohibited from entering into the national territory, not constituting a danger to public order or to social security interests, complying with all health regulations established by the Ministry of Health for entry into the national territory, having an employment contract or promissory employment contract, having a certificate of professional and educational qualifications and curriculum vitae, and obtaining a positive opinion of the competent Ministry.


An individual from a non-Mercosur country must obtain a temporary residence permit that permits them to enter and work in Argentina. Temporary residency is granted for a maximum period of up to 1 year, extendable for periods of equal or shorter terms. After 3 consecutive years as a temporary resident, foreign employees are entitled to apply for permanent residence.

Citizens of Mercosur countries may apply for temporary Mercosur residence in Argentina without the need to present a work contract to the authorities. Temporary Mercosur residence is granted for 2 years and enables the individual to work and to apply for permanent residence on expiry of the temporary residence.


Foreign nationals must apply for visas to visit, live and work in Australia. Application is through the various immigration programs and visas administered by the Australian Department of Home Affairs (DHA).

The Temporary Skills Short (TSS) visa (subclass 482) may be used by businesses to address skill shortages by engaging foreign nationals to live and work in Australia for 2 years – or up to 4 years in some circumstances – where a suitably skilled Australian cannot be engaged. Caveats or other limits on eligibility may apply. The former Temporary Work (Skilled) visa (Subclass 457) no longer accepts new applications.


Nationals of the European Economic Area (EEA) and Switzerland have a right to work in Austria. For other non-Austrian nationals, immigration permission and a work permit are required.


In order to legally work and reside in Bahrain, all employees except Bahrain and Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) nationals are required to have a residence visa and work permit under the sponsorship of their employer, which must have an entity registered in Bahrain.

When an employee is only required to work in Bahrain for a short period of time, there are alternative permits and visas that may be applied for, including the 72-hour visa, 7-day visa and business visas.


Nationals of the European Economic Area (EEA) and Switzerland, in principle, have a right to work in Belgium. For other non-Belgian nationals, a work and/or residence permit is likely to be required.


Nationals of the Mercosul (ie, Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru) have the right to work in Brazil. For other non-Mercosul nationals, immigration permission is likely required.


Canadian citizens and permanent residents have a right to work in Canada. For other non-Canadian nationals, a valid work permit will usually be required. The process for obtaining work permits is managed by Canada's federal government through Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada and Canada Border Services Agency. There are special provisions under the United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement (USMCA) – formerly the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) – which make it easier for certain American or Mexican professionals to obtain a work permit to work in Canada. There are also similar provisions under other international agreements or arrangements such as the Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership (CPTPP), Canada-European Union Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA), and other similar trade agreements which also make it easier for certain categories of workers from signatory countries to work in Canada. In addition, companies which have or plan to establish a branch, subsidiary or an affiliate company in Canada may transfer qualified senior managers, executives or specialized employees to the Canadian entity. ‎


n 2022, a new law on immigration entered into force in Chile. Under this new system, the request for visas is carried out through the Immigration Service’s website. In general, a visa takes around 4 to 6 months to be issued following the submission of the requested information.

Foreigners who travel to Chile on business trips do not require a special permit to do so as those activities are covered by the status of tourist. Foreigners may enter Chile for tourism purposes without a visa unless their country demands a tourism visa for Chilean citizens, in which case a tourism visa is required to enter Chile. Any tourism entrance is limited to a maximum of 90 days, renewable in exceptional circumstances for a similar term.

Foreigners may work in Chile after obtaining a proper permit from the immigration authorities.


A work permit is required for any non-PRC-passport holder, except for Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macao residents with mainland travel cards, and a grading evaluation for expatriate employees applies. Foreign workers are categorized into 3 types: high-end foreign talents, foreign professionals and foreign employees. A quota is imposed on foreign employees who primarily engage in temporary, seasonal, non-technology or service-related work. Limitations on the number of foreign professionals are floatable to market demand, and high-end foreign talents are encouraged to work in China without any restriction on numbers.


A foreign national needs a temporary visa or immigration permit authorizing them to live and work in Colombia. Work visas in Colombia (ie, a Migrant Visa or a Visitor Visa with a work permit) are granted for up to 3 years in the case of the Migrant Visa and for up to 2 years in the case of the Visitor Visa on a discretionary basis and are renewable indefinitely.

After 5 years of holding a Migrant Visa, it is possible to apply for a residency visa. The general rule is that applicant themselves must file the visa application before the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Bogotá, Colombia or before a Colombian Consulate abroad. However, if the process is conducted before the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Colombia, it is possible to file the visa application through a proxy.

Other visa alternatives may be available depending on the activities to be performed in Colombia by a foreign national or their personal situation.

Additionally, the government has issued special permits that allow Venezuelan nationals to work in Colombia.

Czech Republic

Nationals of the EU, EEA and Switzerland enjoy the right to work in the Czech Republic; however, employers must notify the relevant labor authority. Nationals of any other country must typically obtain a residence/work permit. Employers who look to employ non-EU/EEA/Swiss employees must notify the relevant labor authority and comply with the given procedure.


Citizens from the Nordic countries, the European Union (EU), the European Economic Area (EEA) and Switzerland are entitled to live and work in Denmark. However, if the employee is an EU/EEA or Swiss citizen and intends to reside in Denmark for more than 3 months, the employee must apply for a registration certificate at the International Citizen Service or the State Administration upon arrival in Denmark.

If the employee is a citizen of a country outside the EU/EEA or Switzerland, the employee must apply for a residence and work permit before entering Denmark.


Nationals of the EU countries, as well as nationals of countries that belong to the European Economic Area, may work in Finland without a residence permit. Other nationals must have a residence permit or visa to be allowed to work in Finland.


Nationals of the EU, the European Economic Area (EEA), and Switzerland have the right to work in France provided they have a valid ID.

Citizens of other countries need a valid work permit.


Free movement of employees for all countries of the European Economic Area (EAA) – the EU, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway – and Switzerland. All other nationals require a residence and work permit. Nationals of, inter alia, the US, the UK, Israel and Japan and skilled workers enjoy favorable immigration treatment and have access to fast-track procedures.

Hong Kong, SAR

Any person who does not have the right of abode in Hong Kong and who undertakes work of any kind, whether paid or unpaid, must hold a valid employment visa, unless they hold a valid dependent visa or other visa which gives them legal entitlement to work in Hong Kong. Processing time for an employment visa application is generally 6 to 8 weeks.


Nationals of the EEA and Switzerland have the right to work in Hungary without a visa or a work permit.

3rd-country citizens must have a residence permit for the purpose of work before starting work in Hungary. 


The Government of India issues various types of visas for expatriates (ie, foreigners) visiting India. A person who is not an Indian citizen and wishes to undertake any work in India must obtain a valid visa. There are 2 key work-related visas:

  • Business Visa, designated as ''B'' Visa
  • Employment Visa, designated as ''E'' Visa

The duration of such visas depends on the purpose of the visit and is granted at the discretion of the government. Business visas are usually granted to foreigners coming to India, for example, on shorts visits for trainings or for business meetings. Employment visas are granted to foreigners who come to India for the purpose of employment.

If the stay in India will be for more than 180 days, the visa holder must register with the FRRO or the Foreigners Registration Offices (FRO) within 14 days of arrival.


All expatriates coming to Indonesia require a visa, and those working in the country additionally require a ratification of the employer’s utilization of foreign manpower and a stay permit. Fines and imprisonment may be imposed on those who breach immigration requirements.


Nationals of the European Economic Area (EEA), UK and Switzerland have the right to work in Ireland. Other nationals require permission to work via an employment permit.


All non-Israeli citizens (except for holders of certain types of residency permits) are required to obtain a work visa from the Israeli Ministry of Interior. Companies wishing to employ non-Israeli citizens must obtain work permits and work visas for their foreign workers from the Israeli Ministry of Interior. Special rules apply to employment of Palestinian citizens.


Depending on the duration and reason of the immigration, work permits are required for anyone who is not an Italian national or EU citizen.


Foreign nationals who wish to live and work in Japan must obtain the requisite visa. Individuals are also required to have an appropriate status of residence (ie, immigration status), which will determine the extent of the individual's ability to live and work in Japan.


All non-citizens must obtain work authorization prior to entering Kenya and commencing or engaging in any form of employment or business in Kenya. There are 2 types of work authorization:

  • Entry Class D permit: long-term work authorization issued in tranches of 1 or 2 years up to a maximum of 5 years at a cost of approximately USD4,500 per year and
  • Special pass: short-term work authorization issued in tranches of 1, 2 or 3 months up to a maximum of 6 months in a 12-month period at a cost of approximately USD1,500 per month.

The Department of Immigration Services now enforces the 5-year limit prescribed in the law, particularly in respect of Entry Class D permits (ie, Employment Permits). After the expiry of this period, it is expected that a local national will have been trained to take up the position. The enforcement of this policy is, however, on a case-by-case basis, and a renewal application submitted following the prescribed period must set out a clear justification of why the foreign expertise is required.

When hiring foreign expertise, market testing is recommended to confirm that no Kenyan national can perform the proposed role and that the importation of foreign skillset and expertise is absolutely necessary.

For certain professionals, such as lawyers, architects, engineers, scientists, journalists, psychologists, actuaries, IT specialists, pharmacists and nurses, a foreigner must first obtain clearance and licenses from the relevant regulatory body in Kenya.


In order to legally work and reside in Kuwait, all employees except GCC and Kuwaiti nationals, who require a work permit only, are required to have a residence visa and work permit under the sponsorship of their employer, which must have an entity established in Kuwait. Non-working married women may also be sponsored for their residence visas by their husbands.

Where an employee is only required to work in Kuwait for a short period of time, short-term or temporary employment visas are available as an exception, but at a higher fee. However, there are alternative permits and visas that may be applied for, including business visit visas.


European Union (EU) citizens benefit from the right of free movement, which gives them the right to work and reside in any EU country.

Nationals of the European Economic Area (EEA) and Switzerland have the right to work in Luxembourg.

Third-country nationals who want to reside in Luxembourg with a view to working for more than 3 months must apply for a residence permit with authorization to work. The application must be approved by the Immigration Directorate before entering Luxembourg. However, a 3rd-country national who is the spouse, registered partner or child of a citizen of the European Economic Area (EEA) and Switzerland already working in Luxembourg does not require a work permit. A work permit exemption must be requested.


Foreign individuals must obtain the required pass, permit or visa from the Immigration Department.


A foreign national requires an immigration document (ie, temporary visa) authorizing them to live and work in Mexico. Such visas are valid for 1 year and renewable for up to 4 additional periods, after which time the holder may apply for a permanent visa. It is the employer that must file a visa application with the Mexican immigration authorities.


There is a national preference scheme. Work permits are required for all foreigners.

The process for obtaining a work permit may now be completed within a maximum of 10 days (previously 3 to 6 months).

Although the procedure has been simplified, a certificate issued by the National Agency for Promotion of Employment and Competence (ANAPEC) is required to establish that the position of the foreign employee cannot be occupied by a national employee.

Applications for foreigners' employment contract visas must be introduced via the TAECHIR platform. The employer must demonstrate that there is no skill locally available for the position by publishing job announcements in local newspapers.

Some foreign workers are not required to obtain the ANAPEC certificate either because of their particular

immigration status (e.g., spouse of Moroccan nationality) or position (e.g., legal representative), or because of the status of their employer (Casablanca Finance City).

A foreign employee’s contract can be either fixed-term or indefinite-term. A foreign employee who is hired under an indefinite-term contract benefits from all protections granted to national employees, notably in terms of compensation if the contract is wrongfully terminated by the employer. A fixed-term employment agreement becomes an indefinite-term agreement once the agreement is renewed beyond the thresholds that apply to nationals.



In order to work in Mozambique, all foreign employees are required to have a work and residence permit. Foreign individuals who perform short assignments for periods not longer than 90 days in the same year may apply for a short-term work permit. Hiring of foreign employees must follow the procedures and mechanisms provided by law. The procedures for hiring of foreign employees depend of the type of work permit sought. There are basically 2 forms by which a foreigner may work in Mozambique: communication and authorization.

Communication may take the form of:

  • A work permit within the established quotas: 10 percent for a company with up to 10 employees (small company); 8 percent for a company with more than 10 and up to 100 employees (mid-size company) and 5 percent for a company with more than 100 employees (large company). Agreements with the Government of the Republic of Mozambique may provide for special quotas different from the standard one described in the Labor Law and cited above.
  • A short-term work permit for occasional short-term assignments. This work permit is granted for a period of 90 days in a calendar year, which may be taken in consecutive or interspersed days according to the employer's needs. Previously, the short-term work permit was granted for a period of 30 days, which could be extended for 2 further periods of up to 30 days; now, it may be applied for 90 days immediately or for a number of blocks of different length provided that the 90-day limit is not exceeded. Short-term work permits do not affect the quota.

Authorization is the proper method to be used when the quota has been exhausted and is subject to the discretion of the Minister of Labor.

The National Immigration Service has administratively suspended the issuance of residence permits for work visa holders and, in turn, has started to extend the work visa for 1 year, the same period that the residence permit allows. The DIRE is still applicable for those work visa holders hired before this new instruction from October 2017.


All foreigners who work in Myanmar must obtain a business visa and may apply for a multiple-entry visa and a long-term stay permit or work permit. Pursuant to the Myanmar Investment Rules, an investor should obtain approval from the Myanmar Investment Commission (MIC) when appointing a foreigner as a senior manager, technical expert or consultant. An MIC company must submit a work permit application in advance of the appointment of a foreign expert, or within 7 days of the foreign expert's arrival in Myanmar.

Foreign employees of companies without an MIC permit/endorsement are required to obtain a business visa. A valid business visa holder intending to work in Myanmar for an extended duration must apply for a longer stay and multiple-entry visa, and may apply for a stay permit. A Foreign Registration Certificate should be obtained by foreign nationals who wish to reside and work in Myanmar continuously for more than 90 days.


Most nationals of the European Economic Area (EEA) and Switzerland are allowed to work in the Netherlands, although they should be registered. Other nationals should have a visa that allows them to work in the Netherlands.

New Zealand

Nationals and permanent residents of New Zealand and Australia have the right to work in New Zealand; however, all other immigrants have to apply for 1 of the following visas:

  • Essential Skills work visas
  • Skilled Migrant Category Work to Residence visas
  • Residence from Work/Investor/Entrepreneur (various categories)


Expatriate Quota

An Expatriate Quota must be obtained by the employer from the Ministry of Interior Affairs to employ expatriates for up to 12 months and above. The Expatriate Quota is waived for entities that operate within the Nigeria Free Trade Zones.

Operators within the oil and gas industry are required to obtain the prior approval of the Nigerian Content Development and Monitoring Board for the Expatriate Quota before obtaining the approval of the Ministry of Interior Affairs.

Temporary Work Permit

A Temporary Work Visa allows an expatriate to enter into Nigeria to provide technical services for a short term – usually between 1 and 3 months. Subject to a Regularization visa: entry visa issued by the Nigeria Mission in the expatriate's country of residence or domicile in the last 6 months.

Subject to Regularisation Visa

A Subject to Regularization Visa is an entry visa issued to expatriates or other foreign workers who wish to work and remain in Nigeria on a long-term basis. The visa is issued by the Nigeria Mission in the expatriate's country of origin or domicile in the last 6 months.


A combination of an Expatriate’s Resident Permit and Alien's Card (ie, Cerpac) comprises the resident permit (ie, green card) and the alien's movement card (ie, brown card). It is required for expatriates who are resident or working in Nigeria.

Cerpac provides a multiple re-entry visa facility to holders throughout the validity period.

Companies that have been granted the Expatriate Quota and utilize it for their expatriates are required to file monthly returns at the regulatory agencies for the duration of their use of the Expatriate Quota.

To be eligible for Cerpac the following conditions must be met:

  1. The expatriate must have secured employment in Nigeria;
  2. The expatriate must either have (a) travelled to Nigeria with a Subject to Regularization Visa or (b) been working in Nigeria and obtained (or applied for issuance of) Cerpac in the name of the previous employer, before seeking a new employment with the current employer.
  3. The employer must have a valid Expatriate Quota.

There are no provisions under the Immigration Act for the conversion of any other form of visa including TWP, business or visiting visa, to Cerpac. As of September 2019, all foreign nationals who are above the age of 18 years and wish to remain in Nigeria for a period exceeding 90 days must also undertake biometric capturing or e-registration in their respective states of residence.


EC or EU citizens

Foreigners from EC and EU countries, who bring an identity card or a passport, are free to take residency for up to 3 months. If the employee intends to stay in Norway for more than 3 months, the employee must make a preliminary registration online and thereafter visit a police station or the service center for foreign workers for registration. Upon completion of the registration, the employee will receive a registration certificate. The certificate is valid indefinitely – it does not need to be renewed.

Non-EC or non-EU citizens

As a general rule, all citizens from non-EC and non-EU countries must be granted a residence permit before their arrival in Norway. Petition for a working permit is directed to the Norwegian foreign station in the applicant's country of citizenship or the country in which the applicant has had a working or resident permit for the last 6 months. For persons with specialized skills, it is also possible to apply for a work permit after arrival.

As a main rule, the applicant must have a definite job offer for a full-time position from an employer in Norway, and the pay and working conditions must be equivalent to or better than what is settled in current tariff regulations or what is customary in the line of business.


In order to legally work and reside in Oman, all employees (except GCC and Omani nationals) are required to have a work permit and residence visa under the sponsorship of their employer, which must have an entity established in Oman. Employees may sponsor relatives, but this only provides them with the right to reside in Oman, not to work. If the relative would like to work in Oman, they require their own work permit.

In relation to GCC nationals, there is no need for a work permit or residence visa. The employment contract is sufficient.


The hiring of foreign citizens is subject to special rules:

a. Restrictions: The number of foreign employees cannot exceed 20 percent of a company’s total employee headcount in Peru. In addition, the maximum aggregate salary for all foreign employees cannot exceed 30 percent of the Peruvian company’s total payroll.

However, in limited cases (eg, when a manager is hired for a new company), employees may apply to be exempt from the above limits on hiring and salary.

In addition, the above restrictions limits on hiring and salary do not apply to some foreign citizens who are not considered “aliens” for employment purposes – for instance, if such foreign citizens (i) are married to a Peruvian; (ii) have Peruvian ascendants, descendants or siblings; (iii) have an immigrant visa; or (iv) are nationals of countries which have signed a treaty with Peru about employment reciprocity or dual nationality. In these specific cases, in addition to the above restrictions not applying, their contracts of employment do not have to be approved by the Labor Ministry (see requirement c. below).

b. Written contract: Hiring foreign employees requires a written and fixed-term contract, which cannot exceed a 3-year period. If the parties agree, the contract may be extended for an equivalent period. The number of extensions depends on each individual

c. Labor Ministry approval and work permit: Employment contracts with foreign citizens must be submitted to and approved by the Labor Ministry. After such approval, foreign citizens are able to obtain a worker visa and are permitted to start working in Peru.


Philippine law allows employers to engage a foreigner to work in the Philippines, provided an employment permit is first secured from the Department of Labor and Employment. An employment permit may be issued after a determination of unavailability of a person in the Philippines who is competent, able and willing at the time of the application to perform the services for which the foreigner is desired. After issuance of an employment permit, the foreign expatriate must also secure a working visa from the Bureau of Immigration.


Free movement of employees from all countries of the EU and EEA as well as Switzerland. In general, citizens of other countries require a work permit and a work visa or other residence permit.

Citizens of 5 countries, Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova or Ukraine, can work legally on the basis of an employer's statement on entrusting work to a foreigner – a simplified procedure for the legalization of work. The employer is obliged to register a so-called “statement on the entrustment of work" and notify the labour office when the foreigner starts working.

The Act of 12 March 2022 on Assistance to Ukrainian Citizens in Connection with the Armed Conflict on the Territory of that Country (the "Special Act") introduced facilitations in the legalisation of work for all Ukrainian citizens legally residing in Poland. In the case of this procedure, the employer is obligated to notify the local district labour office within 14 days of the date on which a Ukrainian citizen starts work (this can be done via the portal


Nationals of the European Economic Area (EEA) and Switzerland have the right to work in Portugal. Residency and work permits are required for non-EEA/Swiss nationals.


In order to legally work and reside in Qatar, all employees except Qatari nationals (who require a work permit only) are required to have a residence visa and work permit under the sponsorship of the employer (which must have an entity established in Qatar) or their spouse, if married. There are certain limited exceptions to this requirement.

Qatar has also introduced a permanent residence visa regime. Under this regime, foreign nationals may be granted permanent residence visas by Qatar. However, there isa prescribed category of conditions foreign nationals  need to satisfy in order to qualify for a permanent residence visa. There is also a limited annual quota on the number of permanent residence visas that may be issued in any given year. This quota may be decreased or increased ultimately by virtue of the decision of the Emir of Qatar.

Where an employee is only required to work in Qatar for a short period of time, there are alternative permits that may be considered, although suitability will depend on the type of work to carried out.

Amendments to the Sponsorship Law in Qatar have made it easier for expatriate workers to change employers and to leave the country. Under current provisions, non-Qatari citizens no longer need a “No-Objection Certificate” to change employers – however, they must comply with any notice period requirements under the Labor Law (although, on a practical level, this certificate may at times be required). In addition, expatriate employees no longer need to obtain an exit permit from their sponsor of residence prior to leaving the country (with certain exceptions).


Nationals of the EU, the European Economic Area (EEA) and Switzerland have the right to reside and work in Romania, subject to observance of applicable legal conditions and typically subject to obtaining a registration certificate for stays of longer than 3 months. Non-EU, non-Swiss and non-EEA nationals must comply with the immigration-related requirements for entry, stay and work in Romania, with the company employing them being under various procedural obligations related to engaging foreign individuals to work in Romania.


Foreign nationals – except for citizens of Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Armenia – must obtain special migration documents (eg, work permits and patents) to be employed or commence working in Russia. Employers are also required to provide financial, medical and social guarantees in respect of their foreign employees and must comply with general migration monitoring requirements and file notifications regarding foreign employees in accordance with the statutory procedure.

Saudi Arabia

GCC nationals can work in all the GCC states freely without the need for work visas. Employing non-GCC nationals requires a special type of visa issued by the employer who will become the sponsor of the non-GCC employee for all immigration purposes. Employers should be aware of the strict rules relating to the proportion of Saudi and non-GCC employees that may be employed under the naturalization (Nitiqat) rules depending on the size of the business and sector, and the reservation of certain roles and professions either partly or wholly to Saudi nationals.


Foreign nationals (ie, non-Singapore citizens or permanent residents) who wish to live and work in Singapore must obtain a valid work pass. There are several types of work pass which are administered and issued by the Ministry of Manpower (MOM) (eg, Employment Pass, S Pass and various Work Permits). The type of work pass required depends on the applicant's salary, qualifications and skill-level, and on the nature of employment sought.

All Employment Pass applicants are required to pass a new points-based Complementarity Assessment Framework (or ‘COMPASS’) with effect from September 1, 2023 (for new applications) and from September 1, 2024 (for renewals). Applicants will (unless they qualify for a relevant exemption) need to earn a minimum number of points which are based on a range of individual and company criteria.

Slovak Republic

Free movement of employees for all countries of the EEA. An employer based in Slovakia who employs an EU citizen is obliged to inform the competent Office of Labor, Social Affairs and Family about the employment relationship.

In general, an employer based in Slovakia that wants to employ a 3rd country national must inform the competent Office of Labor, Social Affairs and Family about the vacant position and intention to employ a third-country national. Only where the vacancy cannot be filled by a Slovak citizen or EU citizen, the Slovak employer may employ a third-country national. A residence permit for the purpose of employment is required.

South Africa

All non-citizens must hold an appropriate work visa. Local sponsorship for a work visa is generally required, and under certain categories of work visa, it may also be necessary to show that no local person can fill the applicant's position. Foreign nationals who overstay their visa duration will be declared undesirable, and their ability to apply for any type of visa thereafter will be adversely affected.

South Korea

Long-term and short-term general work visas are available to visit Korea for business-related purposes. Two short-term visas are available (C-3-4 and C-4 visas), and 3 long-term visas are available (D-7, D-8 and E-7 visas). The appropriate visa type depends, among other things, on the nature of the assignment or employment and the type of employing entity located in Korea.

Special work visas (E-4, D-5 and D-9 visas) are available for foreign nationals working in highly specialized areas of expertise. Special resident visas (F-4 and F-5 visas) are available which allow a foreign national to live and work in Korea without requiring a separate work visa.


Nationals of the European Economic Area (EEA) and Switzerland have a right to work in Spain. Residency and work permits are required for non-EEA/Swiss nationals.


Nationals of the Nordic countries, most EU/European Economic Area (EEA) countries and Switzerland are permitted to begin working immediately upon entering Sweden. Most non-EU/EEA, non-Nordic and non-Swiss citizens who intend to enter Sweden to work need a work permit. When employing someone from a non-EU country, the company must notify the Swedish Tax Authority by completing an SKV 1160 form with the name, address and employment period of the employee.


For all non-Swiss nationals, a work permit is required, but EU/EFTA citizens may generally start working as soon as the request is filed. Work permits are generally easily granted for EU/EFTA nationals. The current immigration system takes into account the global economic interests of Switzerland as well as the integration of immigrants in Switzerland. In certain circumstances and conditions, priority is granted to unemployed workers in Switzerland: employers have the obligation to notify vacant positions to regional placement centers for certain professions where the national unemployment rate is at least 5 percent.

Taiwan, Republic of China

All foreign nationals, including Hong Kong and Macau citizens, require work permits to work in Taiwan. Chinese citizens are not considered foreigners but are subject to special rules, depending on the purpose of their stay.

Companies employing foreigners are required to abide by industry, quota and credential restrictions.


A foreign person intending to work in Thailand must obtain a valid non-immigrant business (B) visa before entering Thailand and a work permit in Thailand before commencing any work.


The applicant must apply for a non-immigrant business (B) visa at the Royal Thai Embassy or Consulate before entering Thailand.

The B visa initially permits the applicant to stay in Thailand for a period of 90 days. The foreign employee must leave Thailand by the expiry date or apply for an extension of stay with the Thai Immigration Bureau. A 1-year visa may be granted to an applicant whose initial non-immigrant business (B) visa has 30 days remaining.

Where the employing company has registered capital or total current assets in excess of THB30 million and the foreign employee's role is at management level or in the nature of a specialist, a visa extension may be requested via the One Stop Services Center.

After the work permit has been issued for 1 month and the 1st month of salary has been paid with tax withheld, the expatriate may apply for an extension of stay for 1 year with the Thai Immigration Bureau, and the process will be approved within 1 business day at the One Stop Services Center.

Work permit

Once the employee has entered Thailand, a work permit application may be made. There must be 4 Thai employees for every 1 foreigner, and the employer must have paid up registered capital of at least THB2 million per foreign employee, except where the employer obtains promotional privileges from the Board of Investment (BOI) or other applicable exemptions apply. Processing the work permit application normally takes 2 weeks.

Where the employing company has registered capital or total current assets in excess of THB30 million and the foreign employee's role is at management level or in the nature of a specialist, the work permit will be issued within 1 business day at the One Stop Services Center.


The Labor Code regulates the general conditions of work for foreigners in Tunisia, taking into consideration the conventions concluded between the Tunisian Republic and foreign countries and specific legal provisions.

Foreign nationals seeking to work in a paid position of any type in Tunisia are required to have a work permit as well as a residence card marked "authorized to work in Tunisia."

There are 2 kinds of work permit:

  1.  A certificate of “non-submission to the work” - Attestations of non-submission for stamping of a work contract, issued by the Ministry of Employment
  2. A work permit, issued by the Ministry of Employment.


Foreign employees can work in Turkey once they obtain work and residence permits. Within 30 days after obtaining a work permit (as the work permit applications are made by the employer, this date also corresponds to the start date of the work), such expats (who are registered under the social security of a foreign country) must be registered by the employer under the social security system of Turkey, subject to bilateral social security treaties executed with the relevant foreign countries.


Immigration is highly regulated in Uganda. Expatriate employees may work in Uganda with a work permit; applicants seeking short-term work authorization must apply for the 6-month work permit.

Work permits are issued for long-term work authorization lasting for a minimum of 6 months and maximum of 36 months. In principle, an employer is required to demonstrate that there is no skilled employee locally available for the position, and that the foreign employee will train a Ugandan national to take over their position on completion of the assignment. However, for high-level positions, the immigration department grants work permits without a labor testing requirement.

All applications for immigration facilities are now lodged online. For work permits, the sponsoring employer is required to register with the Directorate of Immigration and receive a unique numbered code which grants access to the e-immigration portal.

Nationals of the East African Community (EAC) are exempt from paying fees for work permits. However, EAC nationals are required to apply for work permits and undergo the evaluation process, and their work permit applications may be approved or rejected.


Employers must generally obtain work permits to hire foreign individuals. There are exceptions for special categories of individuals who may be hired without a work permit and special categories of employers that can hire foreigners without a work permit. For example, employers do not need to obtain work permits for foreign employees with valid permanent residency permits, individuals performing teaching and scientific activity in higher educational institutions, individuals participating in the implementation of international technical assistance projects or foreigners who obtained a status of refugee according to Ukrainian law. Further, representative offices of foreign companies registered in Ukraine do not need to obtain work permits for foreign employees. An official card shall be obtained instead, which is a standard form document issued by the Ministry of Economy of Ukraine that confirms employment of a foreigner with a duly registered representative office in Ukraine.

In addition to a work permit, a foreign employee should obtain a temporary residency permit to stay in Ukraine on a long-term basis. This requirement falls on the individual and not the employer, though an employer may be required to provide supporting documents for the individual to obtain a temporary residency permit.

United Arab Emirates

In order to legally work and reside in a particular emirate, all employees except GCC and UAE nationals – who require work permits only – are required to have residence visas and work permits under the sponsorship of their employers, which must have an entity established in the UAE. Alternatively, married women may work under the sponsorship of their husbands or vice versa. In free zones, employee ID cards are issued in place of work permits. Additionally, the free zone authority, rather than the employing company, acts as the employee's sponsor.

When an employee is only required to visit or work in the UAE for a short period of time, alternative permits and visas that may be applied for, including business visit visas and mission visas.

Golden visa holders are not required to have a residence visa provided by their employer as the golden visa itself is evidence of residency; however, golden visa holders must have a work permit from their employer.

United Kingdom

The UK left the EU on January 31, 2020, but was subject to a transition period between February 1, 2020 and December 31, 2020.

Until December 31, 2020, nationals of the European Economic Area (EEA) and Switzerland had the right to work in the UK. EU nationals who were already resident in the UK by December 31, 2020, are now able to stay in the UK indefinitely provided they have applied for either pre-settled or settled status under the EU Settlement Scheme (EUSS). The deadline for doing this was June 30, 2021. Otherwise, EU nationals who do not qualify for a status under the EUSS as well as all non-EU nationals are now subject to a new immigration system which requires sponsorship by an employer in order to be able to work in the UK.

United States

All employees must be legally authorized to work in the US, whether by citizenship, permanent residence (ie, green card) status or a valid visa, which often requires sponsorship by the employer. Within 3 days of the start of employment, all employees must submit materials establishing such authorization and complete a Form I-9.

Employers operating in certain industries (eg, government contractors) and in certain states may be required to use the federal E-Verify system for work authorization confirmation, though some states prohibit or limit use of E-Verify.


There is a cap of 10 percent of the total payroll on hiring foreign employees in companies with more than 10 employees. The salaries of foreign employees must not exceed 20 percent of the total amount paid by the company to local employees.

Foreign nationals who work in Venezuela require a work (TR-L) visa which is granted for 1 year and allows multiple entries. The TR-L visa is renewable for additional 1-year terms. The local entity and foreign employee must sign an employment contract as part of the documents required by the local authorities to issue a work (TR-L) visa.


A valid work permit together with a temporary resident card, a temporary resident confirmation or a visa are required for foreign nationals who wish to reside and work in Vietnam for more than 3 occasions per year with each occasion not exceeding 30 days. A foreign national entering Vietnam to work without a valid work permit may be subject to fines and expelled from Vietnam. Based on the validity of the work permit, foreign national will be granted a work temporary resident card and/or a work visa.

The employer applies for work permits on behalf of the foreign employee with a prescribed application form. Applications for prior written approval for a work permit may be submitted physically, via post or electronically at