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  • Legal system, currency, language

    Constitutional and civil law with certain application of case law. Pesos (ARS). Spanish.

     

  • Corporate presence requirements & payroll set-up

    A foreign entity cannot hire employees in Argentina without a local corporate presence.

    Employers must pay social security contributions (23% or 27% on top of salaries, depending on the company's activity and revenues). Employees must contribute 17% of their salaries to the social security system (to be withheld by the employer and subject to certain taxable limits). Income tax is also withheld by the employer when paying employees' salaries (maximum rate 35%, subject to a progressive scale).

    Collective bargaining agreements for certain activities provide payments to be made by the employer and/or the unionized employees to the relevant unions.

  • Pre-hire checks

    Required

    • Pre-hire medical checks are required pursuant to resolutions issued by the Occupational Hazard Superintendence. If an employee does not complete a pre-hire medical check, the employee will be deemed to have begun work in optimal health; therefore, any injuries or diseases which subsequently arise will be deemed to have happened during the employment relationship.
    • Criminal record checks are required for foreign employees to obtain a work visa.

    Permissible

    Where criminal checks are not required for work visa purposes, they are only permissible (and often done in practice) for specific roles (eg, high-level managerial positions). Reference and educational checks are common and permissible, provided applicant consent is previously obtained.

  • Immigration

    Foreigners from non-Mercosur countries must obtain a temporary residence permit that permits them to enter and work in Argentina. Temporary residency is granted for a maximum period of up to 1 year, extendable for periods of equal or shorter terms. After 3 consecutive years as a temporary resident, foreign employees are entitled to apply for permanent residence.

    Citizens of Mercosur countries can apply for temporary Mercosur residence in Argentina without the need to present a work contract to the authorities. Temporary Mercosur residence is granted for 2 years and enables the individual to work and to apply for permanent residence on expiry of the temporary residence.

  • Hiring options

    Employee

    Full-time, part-time, fixed-term, indefinite-term employees or trainees.

    The following factors tend to indicate a labor relationship: availability to work for his/her employer; an employer who directs and subordinates the individual; an employer who instructs the services and duties required and creates the individual's schedule. Courts will also look at the extent to which the worker depends economically on the employer.

    Independent contractor

    Contractors should only be engaged where there is no labor relationship, that is, no direction/subordination or economic dependence.

    Misclassification, that is failure to register an individual as an employee, or submission of an incomplete or defective registration, carries the risk of severe sanctions and fines from the authorities (including amounts owed to social security for unpaid contributions). In addition, steep fines are levied upon statutory severance, including the doubling of the amount of severance owed to a (misclassified) employee.

    Agency worker

    Employers can engage workers through agencies. Agencies must be authorized by the authorities to function as an agency.

    The employer will be jointly and severally liable with the agency for all labor obligations arising from the worker's employment.

  • Employment contracts & policies

    Employment contracts

    There is no general, legal requirement to execute employment contracts in a specific form – meaning that they can be in writing, made orally, etc. unless a specific law or collective convention applies and indicates otherwise. Notwithstanding, employers are advised to enter into a written employment contract.

    Probationary periods

    The maximum permitted duration of a probationary period is 3 months. After the end of the 3 month period, the employee will turn into an indefinite term employee.

    Policies

    The law does not require employers to have specific policies in place. Notwithstanding, there are some policies that are strongly recommended to prevent potential conflict, such as bonus policies.

    Third-party approval

    Third-party approval is not required for employment contracts or any policies.

  • Language requirements

    No statutory language requirements; however, in practice, employment contracts are drafted in Spanish.

  • Minimum employment rights

    Employees entitled to minimum employment rights

    The Employment Contract Law No. 20,744 (LCL) governs the minimum employment rights in Argentina.

    Pursuant to Article 3º of the LCL, the law governs everything related to the validity, rights and obligations of the parties, provided the employment contract is performed in Argentina, even if the contract was entered into abroad.

    The LCL applies to "workers" which covers not only employees working under an employment contract, but also other individuals who personally perform "work" or provide services for the employer.

    For this purpose, "work" should be understood as any legitimate activity that is provided in favor of someone who has the power to direct that work, through the payment of remuneration for those activities and/or services rendered.

    The main factors that will tend to indicate that an individual is an employee rather than a worker or self-employed worker, are:

    • The employee must be available to work for his/her employer
    • The employer will direct and subordinate the employee, appoint the services and duties required and order the employee to comply with a schedule

    Courts will also weigh the extent to which the worker depends economically on the income obtained from the alleged employer.

    Working hours

    The general maximum number of hours is 8 hours per day or 48 hours per week for all employed workers in public or private enterprises. Each extra hour worked above these limits is deemed to be overtime.

    Notwithstanding the foregoing, Article No. 3 of Law No. 11,544, in its subsections a), b) and c) regulates exceptions to the abovementioned maximum limitation on working hours. The limitations do not apply to employees performing duties under the form of a "job team," that is, working in a special coordinating rotation system, nor to employees performing duties in high-level positions (main managers, directors etc.).

    Overtime

    Employees in Argentina are allowed to perform overtime. Overtime will be only compulsory in cases of danger or accidents or imminent force majeure, or by exceptional demands of the national economy or the company (Article No. 203 of the LCL).

    Overtime must be paid with a surcharge of 50%, calculated using the employee's usual salary if the overtime hours were worked during business days, and 100% on Saturday after 1pm, Sunday or holidays. In no event may employees work overtime of more than, 3 hours per day, 30 hours per month or 200 hours per calendar year.

    Wages

    The national minimum wage (NMW) is updated regularly by the National Council of Employment dependent of the Ministry of Production and Labor. The NMW rate as of December 2018 is AR$11,300.

    Most CBAs also provide for a specific minimum wage applicable to employees subject to the CBA.

    Vacation

    Employees with less than 5 years seniority are entitled to 14 calendar days after 6 months of work. This increases to 21 calendar days for employees with between 5 to 10 years of seniority; 28 days for employees with between 10 to 20 years of seniority, and 35 days for employees with more than 20 years of seniority. For employees with less than 6 months of service, employers must grant 1 day of vacation per worked month. Companies should grant vacation to their employees between October 1 to April 30 of the following year.

    Sick leave & pay

    Sick/accident leave of up to 3 months per year must be provided to employees with less than 5 years of seniority, while 6 months must be granted to employees with seniority of 5 years or longer. For employees with "family dependents" (generally understood to be the immediate family that economically depends on the employee’s wage and labor benefits), these periods are doubled, to 6 and 12 months, respectively.

    Maternity/parental leave & pay

    Pregnant employees may take leave of 45 days prior to giving birth and up to 45 days after giving birth. However, the employee may choose to reduce the leave prior to giving birth, but it may not be less than 30 days, and add those days to the maternity leave period after the birth of the child. In the event of premature birth, the period of the leave that has not been enjoyed before the birth will be added to the leave period after the childbirth. Further, the employee is entitled to earn her gross remuneration (without any withholding contributions made to the social security system), during maternity leave. The ANSES (as defined below) pays the remuneration of employees during maternity leave.

    Fathers are entitled to paid leave of 2 consecutive days for the birth of his child. There is no general regulation providing other parental leave after the birth of a child. 

  • Discrimination

    The law prohibits discriminatory acts or omissions based on race, religion, nationality, ideology, political or trade union opinion, sex, economic position, social condition or physical characteristics.

    In addition, Argentina has ratified international antidiscrimination conventions, such as the Convention of Belem do Pará and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women.

  • Benefits & pensions

    The Social Security National Administration (Administración Nacional de la Seguridad Social, hereinafter ANSES) is the authority in charge of the administration of the social security system in Argentina, called Sistema Integrado de Jubilaciones y Pensiones (SIJP). Employers and employees are required to make contributions to the SIJP which provides for old age pension and disability benefits.

    To qualify for a statefunded pension distribution, male employees must be 65 years old, while female employees must be 60 years old. In both cases, in order to qualify for pension the employee must have contributed to the SIJP for a minimum of 30 years.

    Employers do not have a legal obligation to provide a private pension scheme for employees, as the employees are entitled to state pensions.

  • Data privacy

    The Data Privacy Law No. 24,766 sets limits to the type of personal data that may be collected by prohibiting the collection of sensitive personal data, such as data that is related to political or religious opinions, and regulates the collection, use, processing and transfer of personal data.

    Employers are allowed to monitor employee's work devices, provided the employee is duly notified in advance, and personal information is safeguarded and not disclosed.

  • Rules in transactions/business transfers

    Where there is an asset transfer that qualifies as a business transfer, all obligations arising from the employment contracts that the transferor has executed with its employees will be taken on by the transferee after the transfer. Employment contracts will continue with the transferee and the employees will retain their seniority with the transferor and the rights arising from it. Therefore, on the execution of the transfer, all employees are automatically transferred to the transferee, after their written consent has been obtained.

    Although in practice both internal consultations and collective consultation with trade unions are held before a business transfer takes place, the transferor and the transferee are not required by law to inform or consult employees on a business transfer. However, in order to perform the transfer of staff, the employee’s written consent must be given prior to the transfer. In the absence of this consent, the employee may terminate the employment, with the right to compensation.

    The transferor and the transferee will be jointly and severally liable for any dismissals that arise due to the transfer.

  • Employee representation

    Argentina is a highly unionized country with approximately 3,100 active trade unions with considerable political power. There are unions in nearly all sectors or industries.

    A trade union must be recognized by the Ministry of Production and Labor. Only recognized and authorized unions can enter into a CBA. Employers cannot recognize an unauthorized union voluntarily, not even for collective bargaining purposes.

    The National Constitution sets out collective labor rights in its Article No. 14 (bis), guaranteeing unions the right to collectively bargain and the right to strike.

    CBAs are very common in Argentina. There are different types of CBAs depending on the territory in which they are going to be enforceable. Some CBAs only govern employees within one specific company, whereas other CBAs govern employees performing certain activities in a geographical region or industry.

  • Termination

    Grounds

    Cause is not required for termination of employment; however, it is required to avoid payment of statutory severance. There is no exhaustive and/or exemplary list of behaviors that constitute cause for dismissal; therefore, whether a dismissal is with or without cause will depend on judicial judgment on a case by case basis. 

    Who is subject to termination laws?

    All employees.

    Prohibited or restricted terminations

    Public employees and union delegates cannot be dismissed without cause and without complying with the statutory procedure for these terminations. All other employees can be dismissed with payment of statutory severance, which will differ based on the case (maternity, illness, etc.)

    Pregnant employees are protected from dismissal. If a pregnant employee is dismissed within the period of 7-1/2 months before or after the date of childbirth, the pregnancy will be considered to be the cause of the dismissal, entitling the employee compensation for the discrimination equivalent to their annual salary, in addition to the applicable severance payment.

    Further, if a dismissal occurs 3 months before the marriage of an employee, or 6 months after it, the dismissed employee will be entitled to a special compensation.

    In order to dismiss employees on sick leave, employers must pay a special severance (full severance payment applicable for dismissal without cause, plus the salary which would be payable for the entire period the illness would be expected to last, according to medical opinion).

    Third-party approval for termination/termination documents

    Under Decree No. 1043/18 (effective as of November 14, 2018), employers wishing to dismiss indefinite term employees without cause must notify the Ministry of Production and Labor at least 10 business days before the decision goes into effect. This Decree is effective through March 31, 2019.

    As this decree was issued recently, there is no administrative or judicial case law interpreting the Decree.

    Mass layoff rules

    Prior to a mass dismissal, an employer must provide notice to the respective trade union that regulates the employer's industry. Collective consultation may be required depending on employee headcount.

    Prior to executing or communicating dismissals or suspensions due to force majeure, economic or technological causes that affects more than:

    • 15% of the employees where total headcount is less than 400
    • 10% of the employees where total headcount is between 400 and 1,000 and
    • 5% of the employees where total headcount is greater than 1,000

    Employers must comply with the Preventive Procedure of Companies Crisis (PPC) before the Ministry of Production and Labor. During this procedure, the company will engage in negotiation with the respective union acting on behalf of their members. The aim of this procedure is to avoid business shutdowns or bankruptcy. After the company files the request at the Ministry of Production and Labor, the Ministry will forward the claim within 2 business days of the filing to the other party for its response. After a response is made, a settlement hearing will be scheduled within the next 5 business days. If a settlement is not reached, the Ministry will open a "negotiating period" that must not extend beyond 10 business days. If the parties still do not reach to an agreement within that period, the PPC process will conclude. Notwithstanding this, in practice, this procedure normally takes longer than the law sets out.

    Notice

    In order to proceed with termination, employers must give notice to employees before the dismissal. 

    The term of this notice will depend on the seniority of employees:

    • During their probationary period, notice must be given to employees 15 days before termination
    • In order to dismiss employees who have completed the probationary period but who have less than 5 years of seniority, notice must be given 1 month prior to the dismissal and
    • Employees with more than 5 years' seniority must receive 2 months' notice before their dismissal

    Statutory right to pay in lieu of notice or garden leave

    Employers are permitted to pay in lieu of notice. Current legislation does not regulate nor prohibit garden leave.

    Severance

    An employee who is dismissed without reasonable cause is entitled to statutory severance of 1 month's salary for each year of service, or period longer than 3 months. This amount is calculated using the employee's highest monthly, regular compensation received in the last 12 months of work. This baseline cannot be more than 3 times the "monthly payment," which is the average of all compensation set out in the applicable CBA at the time of the dismissal (this average is periodically published). The Ministry of Production and Labor governs the updating of this average for every authorized trade union.  

    If the employee is not subject to a CBA (typically, senior employees), the limits applicable to the activity in which he/she performs duties will apply. In no case will the amount of the compensation payable be less than 1 month of real salary.

    Currently, in the Vizotti case, the Supreme Court of Justice has raised the basis for calculating compensation subject to a limit, establishing that it will be 67% of the employee's monthly and usual compensation, the amount to be multiplied by the years of service of the employee, based on constitutional reasons and in cases where the application of the legal limit imposes a reduction to the severance payment of more than 33%.

    This severance payment may be reduced or increased in other types of termination (eg, force majeure and lack or reduction of work; death of the employee; employer's bankruptcy; employee's retirement; employee's illness; employee's pregnancy; etc.)

  • Post-termination restraints

    Non-compete, customer non-solicitation and employee non-solicitation clauses are often used, especially when the employer and employee negotiate the terms and conditions of the termination of the employment.

    Restrictive covenants are capable of being enforced post-employment, provided the employee receives compensation for the restrictions. Therefore, consideration is required for valid restrictive covenants. The amount must be fair and in accordance with the salary of the employee, his/her position in the company, the agreements that the company intends to impose and the extent (period and territory) of the restrictive covenant.

    The law does not specifically regulate restrictive covenants. However, most restrictive periods range between 2 years to 5 years. However, under certain circumstances the court has enforced a 10 year post-termination restraint period, based on the business and the amount of consideration paid to the employee.

    Where an employee is in breach of an agreement, the employer can file a claim against the employee in court requesting compensation for damages. The complaint may include injunctive relief to stop the violation immediately. Alternatively, courts may declare the covenant null and void if it has been drafted too widely.

  • Waivers

    Pursuant to the LCL, any executed agreement that suppresses or reduces rights granted by the LCL, labor laws related to specific industries, collective agreements or individual employment contracts, either at the time of their agreement or execution, or the exercise of the rights arising from its termination, shall be null and void.

  • Remedies

    Discrimination

    Compensation is available as a remedy for discrimination or harassment. In case the event of a complaint based on harassment, the employee can file a claim requesting the payment of the statutory severance payment applicable to dismissals without cause and an additional amount for the pain and/or emotional distress caused by the harassment.

    Employers are liable for the acts of their employees. Therefore, the employer and the harasser will be declared jointly and severally liable for the payment of any compensation granted to the victim.

    Unfair dismissal

    Employees may challenge a dismissal without cause within 2 years of the dismissal and seek payment of statutory severance, plus interest and court fees. The complaint must be filed before the labor courts.

    Failure to inform & consult

    Not applicable for terminations as there are no consultation obligations.

  • Criminal sanctions

    Breaches of labor law do not entail a criminal breach or sanction unless such a breach or offense is specifically regulated by the National Criminal Code as a crime. In that case, criminal sanctions will be applied for the breach of criminal law and not for the breach of labor law.

  • Key contacts
    Osvaldo Jofre
    Osvaldo Jofre
    Cordova Francos [email protected]

Language requirements

Argentina

No statutory language requirements; however, in practice, employment contracts are drafted in Spanish.

Australia

No statutory requirements.

Austria

No statutory requirements as long as the employee understands the agreement.

Bahrain

Pursuant to the Labor Law, all employment contracts and records must be in Arabic. Where a contract has been drafted in a foreign language, an Arabic translated version can be attached to fulfil this requirement. If a document is registered in a dual language format and a dispute arises, then the Arabic version of the document will prevail.

Belgium

Either Dutch, French or German is mandatory, depending on the employee's place of work or the location of the registered office of the business for which the employee is working. The place of work or location of the registered office of the employer is determined on a case by case basis, depending on the factual circumstances.

Brazil

Although not required by statute, all employment documents should be in Portuguese. 

Canada

Canada has two official languages, English and French. Individuals are entitled to receive certain government services in either official language. In Quebec, language laws require that all written communications to employees (including offers of employment and promotion) must be prepared in French. In some instances, this can be avoided by having the employee consent to receiving English documentation. In some jurisdictions, posting of basic workplace rights must be done in English and the majority language of the workplace. 

In Quebec, employers are prohibited from requiring a candidate to be proficient in a language other than French in order to be qualified for a role, unless the nature of the duties requires such knowledge. 

In addition to an employer's statutory obligations, it is recommended that essential employment documents (including, for example, health and safety materials) be translated into other languages if an employee or group of employees is unable to understand the contents of the document as published in English or French.

Chile

Documents can be drafted in any language, but pursuant to opinions of the Labor Directorate, the employee should always receive a copy translated into Spanish. It is recommended to have bilingual version of the documents.

China

The written employment contract must be in Chinese. There are no statutory requirements for other documents. However, if the employment contracts/policies/other documents need to be submitted to the labor arbitration commission or court in China, they must be in Chinese. 

Colombia

No statutory requirements, however Spanish is recommended as the Colombian authorities will require any employment document to be in Spanish or translated into Spanish.

Czech Republic

No statutory language requirement. However, all documents must be comprehensible to the employee to whom they are addressed (ie, language to be determined on a case-by-case basis). Works council, trade unions or other similar employees' representatives usually require all communication to be Czech.

Denmark

In general, there are no statutory language requirements, and employment contracts may be provided in any relevant language provided that the individual employee understands the language of the contract. However, special rules do apply with regard to stock options. In this case, legislation requires that the central terms of a stock option scheme be provided to employees in Danish.

Finland

Finland's official languages are Finnish and Swedish. However, employment contracts can be in another language understood by the employee.

France

All employment documents must be drafted in French to be binding.

Germany

No statutory requirements. Employees are often open to English agreements or policies. In case of litigation, the courts would request official translations.

Hong Kong

No statutory requirements.

Hungary

The employment contract is only valid if the contracting parties understand the language it is written in.

India

The contract must be in a language understood by both contracting parties. Contracts are generally in English, provided both parties understand it.

Indonesia

Written agreements must be in the Indonesian language, using the Latin alphabet. Dual-language contracts can be prepared, but the Indonesian language contract will prevail.

Ireland

Not a statutory requirement, but all documents should be in English.

Israel

In a language understood by the employee. As a common best practice, it is recommended that all documents will be in English, provided that employee positions require a working knowledge and use of English.

Italy

No statutory requirements, but all documents should be in Italian.

Japan

The employment agreement and work rules should be provided in the language that is understandable to the employees. If work rules are in a foreign language, a Japanese translation must be filed with the Bureau.

Kenya

No statutory requirements. The practice is to have all official documents in English. Statute, however, requires illiterate employees to have the provisions of their employment contracts explained to them in a language they understand.

Kuwait

Pursuant to the Labor Law, all employment contracts and records must be in Arabic. Where a foreign language is used in addition to Arabic, the Arabic version shall prevail in case of a dispute.

Luxembourg

There is no specific requirement as far as the language is concerned, but the contract must be in a language understood by all the parties. English is commonly used and generally accepted by the courts.

Malaysia

No statutory requirements other than the requirement for the data privacy consent/notice document pursuant to the Personal Data Protection Act to be in both English and Bahasa Malaysia. It is standard market practice for employment agreements or policies and other employee communications to be in English.

Mexico

No statutory requirements, however, Spanish is always recommendable, since any Mexican authority will require any employment document to be in Spanish or translated into Spanish.

Morocco

No statutory language requirement in Morocco, but the official language is Arabic. French is also acceptable as a language for an employment agreement, provided that the employee speaks French. English is rarely used but can be tolerated in certain circumstances.

Mozambique

Although not required by law, all employment contracts should be in Portuguese, especially because of labor inspections. It is common to use bilingual employment contracts (eg, Portuguese and English).

Myanmar

Although not specified, an employment contract needs to be in a language understood by both parties, so dual language is advisable (English and Burmese).

Netherlands

No statutory requirements, although the employer must make sure that the employee understands the relevant provisions.

New Zealand

No statutory requirements, but all documents should be in English.

Nigeria

No statutory language requirement in Nigeria, but the official language is English.

Norway

No statutory requirements. Documents may be in English, provided that the employees have sufficient understanding of English.

Oman

Pursuant to the Labor Law, all employment contracts and records must be in Arabic. Where a foreign language is used in addition to Arabic, the Arabic version will prevail.

Philippines

No statutory requirements. English is fine.

Poland

Statutory requirement to draft employment-related documents in Polish in order for them to be binding. Possibility to prepare these documents in a bilingual (eg, Polish-English) version; however, in the case of any discrepancies, the Polish version will prevail.

Portugal

No statutory requirements, and employees are often open to English agreements or policies. However, it is advisable to draft the employment contract in Portuguese (or adopt a bilingual template), since, in case of litigation, the courts will require a Portuguese version or official translation.

Qatar

Pursuant to the Labor Law, all employment contracts and records must be in Arabic. Where a foreign language is used in addition to Arabic, the Arabic version shall prevail.

Romania

Statutory requirement to execute individual employment agreements in Romanian (a bilingual format, including a Romanian language version, is also possible). It is not a statutory requirement for internal regulations or policies to be in Romanian, but this is strongly recommended.

Russia

No statutory requirements, but all documents should be in Russian (or bilingual) so that they can be presented to the Russian authorities without translation if necessary.

Saudi Arabia

Arabic is the prevailing language in the KSA, though a contract can be established using another language. It is common practice in the KSA to produce a bilingual contract, with the Arabic and English texts written in one document. In case of a labor dispute, all proceedings will be conducted in Arabic and all documents, including the employment contract, must be submitted in Arabic. Even if the parties specify otherwise, the Arabic text will always prevail.

Singapore

No specific requirements to be complied with, though contracts are generally in English.

Slovak Republic

Written legal documents relevant to employment relations must be in the Slovak language. Text in another language with identical content may be provided alongside the text in the Slovak language.

South Africa

When rights of employees are affected, employers are required to ensure that the employees understand the action taken, or information imparted. This may require that information be supplied in a language that the employees can understand. Disciplinary proceedings may be considered unfair if conducted in a language with which the employee is insufficiently familiar to enable effective participation in the proceedings. Translators must then be supplied.

South Korea

No language requirements.

Spain

The basic copy of the employment agreement (copia basica) must be in Spanish. The official template employment contract is provided by the Employment Office only in Spanish. If companies issue additional employment agreements, they could technically be in any language, but a Spanish version is highly recommended, as, in case of conflict, the judge will make a decision based on the Spanish translation.

Sweden

No statutory requirements, but it would be advisable to ensure that all employees understand the language of the documents provided.

Switzerland

No statutory requirements.

Taiwan

No statutory requirements, but any supporting documents must be presented to the courts in Chinese, in the case of any disputes.

Thailand

No statutory requirement except for work rules which must be in Thai and in compliance with the LPA.

Turkey

Employment contracts must be executed in Turkish where such contracts are executed by and between employees who are Turkish citizens and businesses incorporated under Turkish law. However, employment contracts can be drafted in dual column format in Turkish and any other language where the Turkish version will be the prevailing language.

Uganda

No statutory requirements. It is common for agreements to be in English. Where the employee does not understand the language in which the agreement is drafted, the agreement must be attested to. A magistrate or Labor Officer draws up a written document ascertaining that the employee has freely consented to the contract and that his/her consent has not been obtained by coercion, undue influence, misrepresentation or mistake; that the contract complies with the Employment Act; and that the Labor Officer is satisfied that the employee has duly understood the terms of the contract before giving his or her final agreement to it.

Ukraine

All employment documents and internal regulations must be in Ukrainian or bilingual, if needed.

United Arab Emirates

Pursuant to the Labor Law, all employment contracts and records must be in Arabic. In practice, however, English documentation is used in many businesses onshore. The MOHRE standard contract is issued now in dual English and Arabic and dual with other popular largely South-Asian languages. Where a foreign language is used in addition to Arabic, the Arabic version will prevail.

In the free zones, the Arabic language requirement is not always enforced, although employment documentation must be in a language that the employee can understand. 

In the event of a dispute, any document used in the courts must be translated into Arabic and again the official translation in Arabic will prevail.

United Kingdom

No statutory requirements, but all documents should be in English.

United States

Certain documents and notices are required to be posted or provided in the language known to be the primary language of a certain percentage of the workforce or of specific employees, if other than English. "English-only" policies in the workplace may be subject to legal challenge as discriminatory, unless there is legitimate business purpose for the rule.

Venezuela

All documents addressed to employees must be in Spanish or one of the Venezuelan native languages (if applicable, where the employee speaks that language), or can be bilingual.

Vietnam

No statutory language requirements exist.