Hamburger
  • Legal system, currency, language

    Constitutional and civil law with certain application of case law. Pesos (ARS). Spanish.

     

  • Corporate presence requirements & payroll set-up

    A foreign entity cannot hire employees in Argentina without a local corporate presence.

    Employers must pay social security contributions (23% or 27% on top of salaries, depending on the company's activity and revenues). Employees must contribute 17% of their salaries to the social security system (to be withheld by the employer and subject to certain taxable limits). Income tax is also withheld by the employer when paying employees' salaries (maximum rate 35%, subject to a progressive scale).

    Collective bargaining agreements for certain activities provide payments to be made by the employer and/or the unionized employees to the relevant unions.

  • Pre-hire checks

    Required

    • Pre-hire medical checks are required pursuant to resolutions issued by the Occupational Hazard Superintendence. If an employee does not complete a pre-hire medical check, the employee will be deemed to have begun work in optimal health; therefore, any injuries or diseases which subsequently arise will be deemed to have happened during the employment relationship.
    • Criminal record checks are required for foreign employees to obtain a work visa.

    Permissible

    Where criminal checks are not required for work visa purposes, they are only permissible (and often done in practice) for specific roles (eg, high-level managerial positions). Reference and educational checks are common and permissible, provided applicant consent is previously obtained.

  • Immigration

    Foreigners from non-Mercosur countries must obtain a temporary residence permit that permits them to enter and work in Argentina. Temporary residency is granted for a maximum period of up to 1 year, extendable for periods of equal or shorter terms. After 3 consecutive years as a temporary resident, foreign employees are entitled to apply for permanent residence.

    Citizens of Mercosur countries can apply for temporary Mercosur residence in Argentina without the need to present a work contract to the authorities. Temporary Mercosur residence is granted for 2 years and enables the individual to work and to apply for permanent residence on expiry of the temporary residence.

  • Hiring options

    Employee

    Full-time, part-time, fixed-term, indefinite-term employees or trainees.

    The following factors tend to indicate a labor relationship: availability to work for his/her employer; an employer who directs and subordinates the individual; an employer who instructs the services and duties required and creates the individual's schedule. Courts will also look at the extent to which the worker depends economically on the employer.

    Independent contractor

    Contractors should only be engaged where there is no labor relationship, that is, no direction/subordination or economic dependence.

    Misclassification, that is failure to register an individual as an employee, or submission of an incomplete or defective registration, carries the risk of severe sanctions and fines from the authorities (including amounts owed to social security for unpaid contributions). In addition, steep fines are levied upon statutory severance, including the doubling of the amount of severance owed to a (misclassified) employee.

    Agency worker

    Employers can engage workers through agencies. Agencies must be authorized by the authorities to function as an agency.

    The employer will be jointly and severally liable with the agency for all labor obligations arising from the worker's employment.

  • Employment contracts & policies

    Employment contracts

    There is no general, legal requirement to execute employment contracts in a specific form – meaning that they can be in writing, made orally, etc. unless a specific law or collective convention applies and indicates otherwise. Notwithstanding, employers are advised to enter into a written employment contract.

    Probationary periods

    The maximum permitted duration of a probationary period is 3 months. After the end of the 3 month period, the employee will turn into an indefinite term employee.

    Policies

    The law does not require employers to have specific policies in place. Notwithstanding, there are some policies that are strongly recommended to prevent potential conflict, such as bonus policies.

    Third-party approval

    Third-party approval is not required for employment contracts or any policies.

  • Language requirements

    No statutory language requirements; however, in practice, employment contracts are drafted in Spanish.

  • Minimum employment rights

    Employees entitled to minimum employment rights

    The Employment Contract Law No. 20,744 (LCL) governs the minimum employment rights in Argentina.

    Pursuant to Article 3º of the LCL, the law governs everything related to the validity, rights and obligations of the parties, provided the employment contract is performed in Argentina, even if the contract was entered into abroad.

    The LCL applies to "workers" which covers not only employees working under an employment contract, but also other individuals who personally perform "work" or provide services for the employer.

    For this purpose, "work" should be understood as any legitimate activity that is provided in favor of someone who has the power to direct that work, through the payment of remuneration for those activities and/or services rendered.

    The main factors that will tend to indicate that an individual is an employee rather than a worker or self-employed worker, are:

    • The employee must be available to work for his/her employer
    • The employer will direct and subordinate the employee, appoint the services and duties required and order the employee to comply with a schedule

    Courts will also weigh the extent to which the worker depends economically on the income obtained from the alleged employer.

    Working hours

    The general maximum number of hours is 8 hours per day or 48 hours per week for all employed workers in public or private enterprises. Each extra hour worked above these limits is deemed to be overtime.

    Notwithstanding the foregoing, Article No. 3 of Law No. 11,544, in its subsections a), b) and c) regulates exceptions to the abovementioned maximum limitation on working hours. The limitations do not apply to employees performing duties under the form of a "job team," that is, working in a special coordinating rotation system, nor to employees performing duties in high-level positions (main managers, directors etc.).

    Overtime

    Employees in Argentina are allowed to perform overtime. Overtime will be only compulsory in cases of danger or accidents or imminent force majeure, or by exceptional demands of the national economy or the company (Article No. 203 of the LCL).

    Overtime must be paid with a surcharge of 50%, calculated using the employee's usual salary if the overtime hours were worked during business days, and 100% on Saturday after 1pm, Sunday or holidays. In no event may employees work overtime of more than, 3 hours per day, 30 hours per month or 200 hours per calendar year.

    Wages

    The national minimum wage (NMW) is updated regularly by the National Council of Employment dependent of the Ministry of Production and Labor. The NMW rate as of December 2018 is AR$11,300.

    Most CBAs also provide for a specific minimum wage applicable to employees subject to the CBA.

    Vacation

    Employees with less than 5 years seniority are entitled to 14 calendar days after 6 months of work. This increases to 21 calendar days for employees with between 5 to 10 years of seniority; 28 days for employees with between 10 to 20 years of seniority, and 35 days for employees with more than 20 years of seniority. For employees with less than 6 months of service, employers must grant 1 day of vacation per worked month. Companies should grant vacation to their employees between October 1 to April 30 of the following year.

    Sick leave & pay

    Sick/accident leave of up to 3 months per year must be provided to employees with less than 5 years of seniority, while 6 months must be granted to employees with seniority of 5 years or longer. For employees with "family dependents" (generally understood to be the immediate family that economically depends on the employee’s wage and labor benefits), these periods are doubled, to 6 and 12 months, respectively.

    Maternity/parental leave & pay

    Pregnant employees may take leave of 45 days prior to giving birth and up to 45 days after giving birth. However, the employee may choose to reduce the leave prior to giving birth, but it may not be less than 30 days, and add those days to the maternity leave period after the birth of the child. In the event of premature birth, the period of the leave that has not been enjoyed before the birth will be added to the leave period after the childbirth. Further, the employee is entitled to earn her gross remuneration (without any withholding contributions made to the social security system), during maternity leave. The ANSES (as defined below) pays the remuneration of employees during maternity leave.

    Fathers are entitled to paid leave of 2 consecutive days for the birth of his child. There is no general regulation providing other parental leave after the birth of a child. 

  • Discrimination

    The law prohibits discriminatory acts or omissions based on race, religion, nationality, ideology, political or trade union opinion, sex, economic position, social condition or physical characteristics.

    In addition, Argentina has ratified international antidiscrimination conventions, such as the Convention of Belem do Pará and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women.

  • Benefits & pensions

    The Social Security National Administration (Administración Nacional de la Seguridad Social, hereinafter ANSES) is the authority in charge of the administration of the social security system in Argentina, called Sistema Integrado de Jubilaciones y Pensiones (SIJP). Employers and employees are required to make contributions to the SIJP which provides for old age pension and disability benefits.

    To qualify for a statefunded pension distribution, male employees must be 65 years old, while female employees must be 60 years old. In both cases, in order to qualify for pension the employee must have contributed to the SIJP for a minimum of 30 years.

    Employers do not have a legal obligation to provide a private pension scheme for employees, as the employees are entitled to state pensions.

  • Data privacy

    The Data Privacy Law No. 24,766 sets limits to the type of personal data that may be collected by prohibiting the collection of sensitive personal data, such as data that is related to political or religious opinions, and regulates the collection, use, processing and transfer of personal data.

    Employers are allowed to monitor employee's work devices, provided the employee is duly notified in advance, and personal information is safeguarded and not disclosed.

  • Rules in transactions/business transfers

    Where there is an asset transfer that qualifies as a business transfer, all obligations arising from the employment contracts that the transferor has executed with its employees will be taken on by the transferee after the transfer. Employment contracts will continue with the transferee and the employees will retain their seniority with the transferor and the rights arising from it. Therefore, on the execution of the transfer, all employees are automatically transferred to the transferee, after their written consent has been obtained.

    Although in practice both internal consultations and collective consultation with trade unions are held before a business transfer takes place, the transferor and the transferee are not required by law to inform or consult employees on a business transfer. However, in order to perform the transfer of staff, the employee’s written consent must be given prior to the transfer. In the absence of this consent, the employee may terminate the employment, with the right to compensation.

    The transferor and the transferee will be jointly and severally liable for any dismissals that arise due to the transfer.

  • Employee representation

    Argentina is a highly unionized country with approximately 3,100 active trade unions with considerable political power. There are unions in nearly all sectors or industries.

    A trade union must be recognized by the Ministry of Production and Labor. Only recognized and authorized unions can enter into a CBA. Employers cannot recognize an unauthorized union voluntarily, not even for collective bargaining purposes.

    The National Constitution sets out collective labor rights in its Article No. 14 (bis), guaranteeing unions the right to collectively bargain and the right to strike.

    CBAs are very common in Argentina. There are different types of CBAs depending on the territory in which they are going to be enforceable. Some CBAs only govern employees within one specific company, whereas other CBAs govern employees performing certain activities in a geographical region or industry.

  • Termination

    Grounds

    Cause is not required for termination of employment; however, it is required to avoid payment of statutory severance. There is no exhaustive and/or exemplary list of behaviors that constitute cause for dismissal; therefore, whether a dismissal is with or without cause will depend on judicial judgment on a case by case basis. 

    Who is subject to termination laws?

    All employees.

    Prohibited or restricted terminations

    Public employees and union delegates cannot be dismissed without cause and without complying with the statutory procedure for these terminations. All other employees can be dismissed with payment of statutory severance, which will differ based on the case (maternity, illness, etc.)

    Pregnant employees are protected from dismissal. If a pregnant employee is dismissed within the period of 7-1/2 months before or after the date of childbirth, the pregnancy will be considered to be the cause of the dismissal, entitling the employee compensation for the discrimination equivalent to their annual salary, in addition to the applicable severance payment.

    Further, if a dismissal occurs 3 months before the marriage of an employee, or 6 months after it, the dismissed employee will be entitled to a special compensation.

    In order to dismiss employees on sick leave, employers must pay a special severance (full severance payment applicable for dismissal without cause, plus the salary which would be payable for the entire period the illness would be expected to last, according to medical opinion).

    Third-party approval for termination/termination documents

    Under Decree No. 1043/18 (effective as of November 14, 2018), employers wishing to dismiss indefinite term employees without cause must notify the Ministry of Production and Labor at least 10 business days before the decision goes into effect. This Decree is effective through March 31, 2019.

    As this decree was issued recently, there is no administrative or judicial case law interpreting the Decree.

    Mass layoff rules

    Prior to a mass dismissal, an employer must provide notice to the respective trade union that regulates the employer's industry. Collective consultation may be required depending on employee headcount.

    Prior to executing or communicating dismissals or suspensions due to force majeure, economic or technological causes that affects more than:

    • 15% of the employees where total headcount is less than 400
    • 10% of the employees where total headcount is between 400 and 1,000 and
    • 5% of the employees where total headcount is greater than 1,000

    Employers must comply with the Preventive Procedure of Companies Crisis (PPC) before the Ministry of Production and Labor. During this procedure, the company will engage in negotiation with the respective union acting on behalf of their members. The aim of this procedure is to avoid business shutdowns or bankruptcy. After the company files the request at the Ministry of Production and Labor, the Ministry will forward the claim within 2 business days of the filing to the other party for its response. After a response is made, a settlement hearing will be scheduled within the next 5 business days. If a settlement is not reached, the Ministry will open a "negotiating period" that must not extend beyond 10 business days. If the parties still do not reach to an agreement within that period, the PPC process will conclude. Notwithstanding this, in practice, this procedure normally takes longer than the law sets out.

    Notice

    In order to proceed with termination, employers must give notice to employees before the dismissal. 

    The term of this notice will depend on the seniority of employees:

    • During their probationary period, notice must be given to employees 15 days before termination
    • In order to dismiss employees who have completed the probationary period but who have less than 5 years of seniority, notice must be given 1 month prior to the dismissal and
    • Employees with more than 5 years' seniority must receive 2 months' notice before their dismissal

    Statutory right to pay in lieu of notice or garden leave

    Employers are permitted to pay in lieu of notice. Current legislation does not regulate nor prohibit garden leave.

    Severance

    An employee who is dismissed without reasonable cause is entitled to statutory severance of 1 month's salary for each year of service, or period longer than 3 months. This amount is calculated using the employee's highest monthly, regular compensation received in the last 12 months of work. This baseline cannot be more than 3 times the "monthly payment," which is the average of all compensation set out in the applicable CBA at the time of the dismissal (this average is periodically published). The Ministry of Production and Labor governs the updating of this average for every authorized trade union.  

    If the employee is not subject to a CBA (typically, senior employees), the limits applicable to the activity in which he/she performs duties will apply. In no case will the amount of the compensation payable be less than 1 month of real salary.

    Currently, in the Vizotti case, the Supreme Court of Justice has raised the basis for calculating compensation subject to a limit, establishing that it will be 67% of the employee's monthly and usual compensation, the amount to be multiplied by the years of service of the employee, based on constitutional reasons and in cases where the application of the legal limit imposes a reduction to the severance payment of more than 33%.

    This severance payment may be reduced or increased in other types of termination (eg, force majeure and lack or reduction of work; death of the employee; employer's bankruptcy; employee's retirement; employee's illness; employee's pregnancy; etc.)

  • Post-termination restraints

    Non-compete, customer non-solicitation and employee non-solicitation clauses are often used, especially when the employer and employee negotiate the terms and conditions of the termination of the employment.

    Restrictive covenants are capable of being enforced post-employment, provided the employee receives compensation for the restrictions. Therefore, consideration is required for valid restrictive covenants. The amount must be fair and in accordance with the salary of the employee, his/her position in the company, the agreements that the company intends to impose and the extent (period and territory) of the restrictive covenant.

    The law does not specifically regulate restrictive covenants. However, most restrictive periods range between 2 years to 5 years. However, under certain circumstances the court has enforced a 10 year post-termination restraint period, based on the business and the amount of consideration paid to the employee.

    Where an employee is in breach of an agreement, the employer can file a claim against the employee in court requesting compensation for damages. The complaint may include injunctive relief to stop the violation immediately. Alternatively, courts may declare the covenant null and void if it has been drafted too widely.

  • Waivers

    Pursuant to the LCL, any executed agreement that suppresses or reduces rights granted by the LCL, labor laws related to specific industries, collective agreements or individual employment contracts, either at the time of their agreement or execution, or the exercise of the rights arising from its termination, shall be null and void.

  • Remedies

    Discrimination

    Compensation is available as a remedy for discrimination or harassment. In case the event of a complaint based on harassment, the employee can file a claim requesting the payment of the statutory severance payment applicable to dismissals without cause and an additional amount for the pain and/or emotional distress caused by the harassment.

    Employers are liable for the acts of their employees. Therefore, the employer and the harasser will be declared jointly and severally liable for the payment of any compensation granted to the victim.

    Unfair dismissal

    Employees may challenge a dismissal without cause within 2 years of the dismissal and seek payment of statutory severance, plus interest and court fees. The complaint must be filed before the labor courts.

    Failure to inform & consult

    Not applicable for terminations as there are no consultation obligations.

  • Criminal sanctions

    Breaches of labor law do not entail a criminal breach or sanction unless such a breach or offense is specifically regulated by the National Criminal Code as a crime. In that case, criminal sanctions will be applied for the breach of criminal law and not for the breach of labor law.

  • Key contacts
    Osvaldo Jofre
    Osvaldo Jofre
    Cordova Francos [email protected]

Criminal sanctions

Argentina

Breaches of labor law do not entail a criminal breach or sanction unless such a breach or offense is specifically regulated by the National Criminal Code as a crime. In that case, criminal sanctions will be applied for the breach of criminal law and not for the breach of labor law.

Australia

There are criminal sanctions for breach of relevant work health and safety laws. The Queensland and South Australian labor hire licensing laws provide for terms of imprisonment in respect of some breaches.

Austria

Criminal sanctions are not generally a concern.

Bahrain

Criminal sanctions can be imposed for a variety of reasons, including but not limited to the breach of health and safety obligations, breach of immigration laws, breach of data protection laws and breach of confidentiality.

Belgium

Most legal dispositions with regard to labor law are subject to criminal or administrative sanctions in case of breach.

Brazil

Violation of employment laws and discrimination can trigger criminal sanctions.

Canada

The main areas where criminal sanctions arise are under occupational health and safety legislation and related Criminal Code provisions. Both employees and directors can be subject to criminal sanctions.

Chile

Not applicable for this jurisdiction.

China

Limited circumstances, such as failure to pay salary in bad faith, may result in criminal sanctions.

Colombia

Employees may be subject to criminal sanctions if they do not honor their non-disclosure or confidentiality agreements.

Employers may be subject to criminal sanctions if they perform actions to reduce enrollment to unions or to discourage such enrollment. 

Czech Republic

Illegal employment of foreigners may under limited circumstances constitute a criminal offence.

Denmark

Non-compliance with employment law can lead to criminal sanctions. Examples include employing a person without a valid work permit, failing to report and pay holiday pay, reading private emails, disclosure of trade secrets, breach of anti-discrimination provisions and failure to inform and consult in relation to collective redundancies, or business transfers.

Apart from fines relating to a breach of the rules on work permits and to the lack of reporting and paying of holiday pay, criminal sanctions related to employment legislation are rarely seen.

Finland

Typically employers face criminal prosecution in connection with alleged discrimination, or where breach of occupational health and safety obligations has caused damage to an employee, or if the employer hasn't complied with working hours regulations. Failure to comply with the Employment Contracts Act or with consultation obligations in connection with the transfer of an undertaking can also be sanctioned with a criminal fine.

France

Yes (eg, for discrimination, harassment, offense of obstruction, or where an employee is discovered undertaking "concealed" work).

Both the company's representative and the company as a legal entity can be held criminally liable.

Germany

Significant frequent violation of works council information and consultation rights could lead to criminal charges; however, this rarely occurs.

Hong Kong

The provisions of the EO are enforced, first by criminal law sanctions (where the usual penalty is a fine, except for payment-of-wages offenses, which can give rise to a sentence of imprisonment), and secondly, by way of civil remedies at the instance of the aggrieved employee. Further, in some instances, liability can be passed to the individual decision-maker of the employing company.

Hungary

Not applicable for this jurisdiction.

India

Sanctions for violating labor statutes include both imprisonment and fine. The extent of such penal provisions will depend on the statute and the nature of the breach.

Indonesia

Imposed on employers who breach the Manpower Law, including where employers participate in anti-union activity; intentionally and without any rights or illegally access computers and/or electronic systems owned by somebody else for the purpose of obtaining electronic information and/or electronic documents; violate workplace health and safety regulations; fail to submit written annual reports on their industrial relations to the Minister of Manpower; or fail to pay overtime due.

Ireland

Failure to notify the Minister for Business, Enterprise and Innovation about mass layoffs is a criminal offense, although prosecution is rare. Employing a non-EEA or Swiss national without the required work permit is also a criminal offense.  Failure to provide employees with a written statement containing five core terms of employment within five days of them commencing employment is also a criminal offence.

Israel

Failure to comply with various labor laws (such as minimum wage, work hours, unlawful discrimination and prohibited termination) is a criminal offense and may result in criminal proceedings (at least in theory).

Italy

None. Under certain circumstances, failure to fulfill a court decision can lead to criminal liability.

Japan

Some violations are subject to criminal sanctions. For example, violations of the worker dispatch law or failing to pay wages (including overtime allowances) may result in criminal sanctions.

Kenya

Although criminal sanctions are not a general concern in employment and labor practices, failing to comply with the provisions of the labor laws is punishable in a court of law either by imprisonment or fines.

Kuwait

Criminal sanctions can be imposed for a variety of reasons, including but not limited to the setting up of a trade union, breach of health and safety obligations, breach of immigration laws, breach of data protection laws and breach of confidentiality.

Luxembourg

Some of the mandatory labor law rules are criminally punishable by fines and/or imprisonment, notably:

  • Publishing a job offer without informing the Administration of Employment (ADEM)
  • Hiring an employee without arranging a compulsory medical examination
  • Hiring an employee from outside the EEA without authorization
  • Paying wages below the minimum social wage
  • Failing to comply with the rules on paid leave
  • Failing to comply with the rules on public holidays

Malaysia

None specific to employers.

Mexico

Employees may be subject to criminal sanctions if they do not honor their non-disclosure agreement.

Employers may be subject to criminal sanctions if they pay to their employees less than the minimum wage, or employ children under 15 years old.

Morocco

Ranges from fines (up to €30,000) to the closure of the company.

Mozambique

Possible, but separate from labor process.

Myanmar

If any employer fails to sign an employment contract, it can be punished with imprisonment for not more than 6 months, a fine, or both.

If anyone violates any matters contained in an employment contract, he/she shall be punished with imprisonment for not more than 3 months, a fine, or both.

Employers or employees may be criminally liable for certain violations and subject to a fine, imprisonment, or both.

Netherlands

Criminal sanctions are not generally a concern.

New Zealand

Generally, none. However, there are criminal sanctions for breach of relevant health and safety laws.

Nigeria

Criminal sanctions are not applicable.

Norway

Willful or negligent breach of the Working Environment Act by the proprietor, employer or person managing the undertaking in the employer's stead is liable to a fine, imprisonment up to three months, or both. In particularly aggravating circumstances, the penalty may be up to two years' imprisonment. This does not apply to breach of provisions regarding appointment and termination.

Oman

Criminal sanctions can be imposed for a variety of reasons, including but not limited to breach of health and safety obligations, breach of immigration laws, breach of data protection laws and breach of confidentiality.

Philippines

Criminal penalties may be imposed for violations of the Labor Code of the Philippines and relevant Special Laws as provided therein, such as but not limited to: illegal recruitment, sexual harassment, child labor, non-remittance of SSS, PhilHealth, and Pag-Ibig contributions, and violations of collective bargaining agreements amounting to unfair labor practices.

Poland

An employer may be fined from PLN 1,000 to 30,000 for committing offenses specified in the Polish Labor Code which relate to the employer's basic obligations.

Portugal

There are criminal sanctions related to employment issues such as improper use of child labor, violation of the autonomy or independence of trade unions, discriminatory acts, disobedience to the labor authority, fraud in respect of withholding taxes or social security contributions.

Generally, legal persons will be held criminally accountable for felonies committed by their legal representatives and de facto or de jure administrators in their name or on their behalf and to their benefit.

Qatar

Criminal sanctions can be imposed for a variety of reasons, including, but not limited to, the breach of health and safety obligations, breach of immigration laws, breach of data protection laws and breach of confidentiality.

Romania

Infringement of health and safety rules can lead to criminal sanctions (where human life has potentially been put in jeopardy). Criminal liability is also triggered in cases of repeated breach of the obligation to pay minimum salary or repeated refusal to permit labor inspectors access to any of the company's locations, or to provide them with requested documentation, etc.

Russia

Criminal sanctions are not generally a concern for employers acting as legal entities.

Saudi Arabia

Not generally a concern under Saudi Labor Law.

Singapore

Criminal sanctions include fines or imprisonment for offenses under the EA (or other applicable statutes). Offenses under the EA include: wrongful detention of an employee by the employer after a contract of services have been determined; obstructing an employee appearing before an inquiry held by the Commissioner; fraudulently inducing an employee to emigrate out of Singapore to work; entering into prohibited contracts of service; failure to pay salary as stipulated; and employment of children under 12 years of age.

Any director, manager, secretary or other officer of the company may also be charged with the same offense and punished upon conviction, if it can be shown that the offense is committed with the consent or connivance of any act or default of such persons.

Slovak Republic

Non-payment of wages or severance pay may be punished by a prison sentence of up to 12 years, depending on the circumstances of and motive for the non-payment, and on the damage caused.

South Africa

Employment law is largely de-criminalized; however, specific legislation renders some behavior a criminal offense. For instance, disclosure of the private information of employees to third parties is an offense.

South Korea

If the ruling of unfair dismissal is finalized by the court and the employer does not comply with the reinstatement order from RLRC, the employer may be subject to an imprisonment of up to 1 year or a criminal fine of up to 10 million KRW.

Spain

There are criminal sanctions related to employment issues, such as those linked to work-related accidents and social security fraud.

Generally, legal persons will be held criminally accountable for the felonies committed in their name or on their behalf, and to their benefit, by their legal representatives and de facto or de jure administrators. Legal persons will also be criminally accountable for the felonies committed when perpetrating the corporate activities, and on account, and to the advantage, thereof.

Sweden

An employer who intentionally or negligently fails to comply with an order or prohibition issued by the Swedish Work Environment Authority pursuant to certain regulations may be fined or sentenced to imprisonment for a maximum of 1 year.

Switzerland

Failure to comply with health and safety legal requirements; undeclared or illicit work; sexual and psychological harassment.

Taiwan

Not a concern.

Thailand

LPA and LRA both provide criminal sanctions including penalties of both fine and imprisonment. Further, in some instances, liability can be passed to the director of the employing company.

Turkey

Criminal sanctions are not generally a concern, except in cases such as sexual harassment or an occupational accident.

Uganda

Violation of certain provisions of the Employment Act can trigger criminal sanctions. For example a person who records or causes to be recorded wrong, inaccurate or deficient information in an employee's records of service with an intention to defraud the employee or employer or any public authority, or who acts to conceal such fraudulent acts, commits an offense, as does an employer or employee who fails, without justifiable cause, to reply to a labor officer's written request for information within a period of 14 days from the time the request was received by the employer or the employee, as the case may be.

Ukraine

Ukrainian labor law provides for the following categories of liability for violations of the labor law:

  • Financial penalties of up to approx. US$13,000
  • Administrative fines for violations of the Code of Administrative Offenses
  • criminal sanctions, including imprisonment, for company officers for gross violations of labor laws (eg, intentional and unjustified failure to pay salary for a period exceeding one month)

United Arab Emirates

Criminal sanctions can be imposed for a variety of reasons, including but not limited to the setting up of a trade union, breach of health and safety obligations, breach of immigration laws, breach of data protection laws and breach of confidentiality.

United Kingdom

Failure to notify the Secretary of State about mass layoffs is a criminal offense. Prosecution is fairly rare, but there has been an upward trend in prosecutions in recent years. Otherwise, criminal sanctions are not generally a concern.

United States

Employers may be criminally liable for certain violations of wage and hour laws. In limited circumstances, employers may be vicariously liable for the criminal acts of their employees. Employers may be liable for monetary statutory penalties (such as double or treble damages) for violations of wage and hour and other laws.

Venezuela

Failure to comply with the mass layoff requirements or administrative decisions of reinstatement and back pay may result in imprisonment from 6 to 15 months. In practice, prosecution is not common.

Vietnam

Employers may be criminally liable for certain violations, such as unlawfully dismissing an employee or using force or threats which cause an employee to resign, and subject to a fine, imprisonment, or both.