• Intellectual property framework


    Protection of intellectual property rights is required by the Federal Constitution and by several multilateral treaties. The main statutes in this area are federal statutes. However, in case of litigation, some matters are subject to federal jurisdiction, and others to provincial jurisdiction.

  • Commercial contract framework


    Commercial contracts are governed by the Civil and Commercial Code. This code came into effect in 2015 and it replaces the previous separate Civil Code and Commercial Code. It is part of the federal legislation, but jurisdiction regarding its implementation and litigation resulting thereunder corresponds primarily to the provincial courts.

    The Civil and Commercial Code includes general provisions on contracts, which are applicable to all contractual transactions. These provisions govern matters such as the formation of contracts, offer and acceptance, possible subject matter of contracts, legal formalities, the legal effects of contracts, contract termination and others.

    In addition, the Civil and Commercial Code includes provisions applicable to specific types of contracts, such as sale agreements, leases, franchise agreements and agency agreements. More than 30 types of agreements are subject to specific provisions of this kind. These specially regulated agreements are thus subject to the general rules applicable to contracts –described above – and to the special rules applicable to the relevant type of agreement. Agreements that are not subject to special rules are nevertheless valid, and they are governed primarily by the general contract rules and – to the degree possible – by the rules applicable to analogous specially regulated contracts.

    Other laws include provisions on specific types of commercial contracts. For instance, the Copyright Law includes certain provisions of contracts related to software and to publishing; the Patent Law includes rules on license agreements; and the Insurance Law includes rules on insurance contracts. However, in all these specially regulated contracts, the general contract law rules included in the Civil and Commercial Code are also applicable.

    Commercial contracts with the federal or provincial governments or with other governmental entities are also governed by administrative law. Special rules on contracts with state entities have been included in federal or provincial laws, or have been developed by case law.

  • Copyrights

    Nature of right

    Copyright protects intellectual creations in all fields of science, art and literature. Article 1 of the Copyright Law includes a non-exhaustive list of possible intellectual works protected by copyright. These include, among others, literary and artistic works, music, architectural works and software.

    Copyright protects intellectual expressions, but not ideas. For example, the contents of a book in terms of sentences and other literary expressions are protected by copyright, but the creative idea underlying the book as a whole is not.

    Copyright results from the creation of an intellectual work. Registration is not necessary for copyright to exist, although it is necessary for the exercise of some rights by local authors. Upon creation of a protected work, copyright belongs to the original author or authors, who then may transfer their right, by contract or by the operation of certain legal rules.

    Copyright includes economic and moral rights. Economic rights consist, basically, in the exclusive right to use and exploit the protected work. The Copyright Law lists some of the elements of this exclusive right, such as the right to reproduce the relevant work, to market copies, to prepare derivative works or to have the work performed publicly.

    Moral rights include the so call "integrity right" – that is, the right to preserve the text, title and other contents of the work, even if property rights on such work have been assigned; the "paternity right," the author’s right to be named and identified as such together with the work; the "publication right," the right to decide whether the right will be published; and the "alteration right," the right to modify the work, even after it has been published. Moral rights belong to the author and they are generally non-assignable.

    Legal framework

    Copyright law is included in Law 11, 723, as amended. In addition, multiple laws and regulations govern matters such as related rights, publishers' rights and collective management societies.

    Argentina is part of the main multilateral international copyright agreements, such as the Trips Agreement, the Berne Convention and the Rome Convention. The provisions of these agreements are actively enforced by the courts.

    Duration of right

    The general rule is that copyright protection lasts for a term of seventy years, counted as of January 1 of the first year after the death of the author, as well as through the life of the author.

    In the case of work done through cooperation, the 70-year term is computed from the death of the last person who participated in the joint authorship of the work involved.

    In the case of posthumous works, the 70-year term is computed from the death of the author.

    The duration of protection of anonymous works whose copyright belongs to institutions, corporations or legal entities is 50 years from the date of publication of the work.

    Special rules on copyright duration apply to specific types of copyrightable works, such as photographs and cinematographic works.

    Ownership / licenses

    The basic rule is that ownership belongs to the author. Special rules have been developed in connection with special types of works, such as cinematographic works, derivative works and software.

    There are several types of joint ownership. It may apply to works done through cooperation, which imply a creative collaboration between different authors; to collective works, which are those created through the initiative or direction of one or more individuals, who coordinate or direct the efforts of several other individuals to achieve a joint result; and to composite works, which are the result of adding different separate works, each with a possible separate author and owner, into one final result.

    Works created by employees who have been hired for that purpose belong to the employer.

    Copyright may be subject to licenses, generally as part of broader contractual arrangements such as publishing agreements.

    Remedies for infringement

    Damages may be claimed before civil courts for all types of copyright violation. Registration of works is not necessary, except for local authors, whose rights may be suspended until registration takes place.

    It is also possible to file civil action to prevent further copyright violation, and to obtain preliminary remedies, such as injunction, in the course of civil procedures.

    Criminal remedies, particularly fines, are possible, but are not frequently applied.

  • Mask works / topographies

    Nature of right

    Mask works and topographies are not separately protected under Argentine law. They may be protected under patent law or by way of confidentiality.

    Legal framework

    Argentina has enacted no specific rules on chip protection. Although Argentina is part of the WTO and has approved the Trips Agreement, it has not yet implemented any rules on chip protection.

    The provisions on chip protection included in the Trips Agreement have not been deemed immediately applicable under Argentine law. In addition, Argentina has not ratified or implemented other multilateral treaties on chip protection, in particular the Treaty of Washington of 1989.

    Semiconductor technology, generally, and topographies, in particular, may be protected under the traditional intellectual property rules applicable to all types of technology, specially patent law and the rules on confidential information. Therefore, matters such as the duration of the relevant rights, ownership and remedies depend on the type of protection used in connection with each specific mask work or topography.

    Duration of right

    Not applicable for this jurisdiction.

    Ownership / licenses

     Not applicable for this jurisdiction.

    Remedies for infringement

    Not applicable for this jurisdiction.

  • Patents

    Nature of right

    Patents are a statutory right. The granting of patents is required by the Argentine Constitution and by different international documents, particularly the Trips Agreement. Patent rights imply an exclusive right to exploit a process or a product. The Argentine Patent Law defines the limits of these exclusive rights, on the basis of the provisions of the Trips Agreement.

    Legal framework

    Patents are governed by the Patent Law – Law 24,481, as amended. In addition, they are governed by the Trips Agreement and by the Paris Convention. Argentina is not a party to the Patent Cooperation Treaty.

    Duration of right

    The basic rule is that patents expire 20 years after the date in which the relevant patent application was filed. Argentina uses a "first to file" system, but it also applies the priority rules derived from the Paris Convention.

    Argentine law provides special rules on compulsory licenses and on patent termination due to lack of exploitation of the patented invention. Compulsory licenses may be granted in case of non-exploitation, competition law violations or sanitary emergencies, among other cases. Patent termination may result when, after a compulsory license was granted for lack of exploitation, no exploitation of the invention takes place for two years after the license was granted.

    Ownership / licenses

    Joint ownership is permissible. The Patent Law includes provisions on the exercise of patent rights by the joint owners. In addition the Civil and Commercial Code rules on joint property apply to patents.

    The Patent law includes rules on licenses. Licenses are not exclusive, unless the parties provide otherwise. Competition law rules are applicable to restrictive clauses included in license agreements.

    Remedies for infringement

    The Patent law provides both civil and criminal law remedies for cases of infringement.

    Civil remedies include the compensation of damages and termination of the infringing activities.

    A complex system of rules for preliminary remedies in patent cases is included in the Patent law. Generally, suspension of an alleged infringer's exploitation requires a preliminary procedure, with the participation of expert witnesses.

    Criminal procedures and sanctions are rare.

  • Trademarks

    Nature of right

    A trademark may consist of one or more words, with or without conceptual content, drawings, commercial symbols, monograms, engravings, prints, seals, images, stripes, color combinations, letter and number combinations, the special graphics of letters and numbers, advertisement phrases, reliefs, and any other sign with distinctive capacity.

    A trademark is normally protected by means of its registration. However, de facto trademarks, that is those that are used but not registered, are also protected in a more limited way.

    Legal framework

    Trademarks are governed by the Trademark Law – Law 22,362, as amended.

    In addition, trademarks are protected by the rules included in Trips Agreement and in the Paris Convention.

    Duration of right

    Registered trademarks are protected for a period of ten years, from the moment of registration. Trademark registration may be renewed indefinitely.

    Registration may be cancelled for lack of use during a period of five years. In addition, renewal of registration requires proof of the trademark's prior use.

    Ownership / licenses

    Ownership is acquired by means of registration. However, use of unregistered trademarks may result in certain rights for the user.

    Trademarks may be subject to joint ownership. The Trademark Law and the Civil and Commercial Code provide the rules applicable to these joint ownership relationships.

    Trademark licenses are possible. They are valid even if they are not registered with the trademark office.

    Remedies for infringement

    The Trademark Law provides both civil and criminal law remedies for cases of infringement.

    Civil remedies include the compensation of damages and the termination of the infringing activities.

    Special preliminary remedies are applicable in cases of trademark infringement. The trademark owner may obtain an injunction against the infringer, when the trademark is registered and its violation is immediately evident.

    Criminal law remedies are rarely used in practice.

  • Trade secrets

    Nature of right

    Argentine law provides protection for trade secrets and confidential information. A complex set of rules creates rights against conduct whereby access is gained illegally to confidential information, or which implies illegal use of trade secrets or confidential information or which results in the unauthorized and harmful disclosure of confidential or secret information.

    Confidential information is characterized by the fact that it is kept in a reserved manner and that it is not generally available for technicians working in the relevant technical field. Trade secrets receive a special degree of protection, particularly under criminal law.

    Legal framework

    Confidential information is governed and protected by Law 24,766. It is also protected by the Trips Agreement and by the Paris Convention.

    In addition, multiple rules and statutes protect confidential information and trade secrets. Labor law protects the confidentiality and ownership of information used in employment relationships.

    Several criminal law rules apply to special types of violations of confidentiality. In particular, disclosure of trade secrets and unfair competition by means of the illegal use or appropriation of trade secrets are subject to criminal law penalties.

    Duration of right

    Confidential information and trade secrets is protected for as long as the relevant information is kept confidential. The degree of protection diminishes if the information ceases to be objectively a secret, due to its previous disclosure or because it has been obtained independently by other parties.

    Ownership / licenses

    Ownership results from the obtention of the information, accompanied by legal or practical measures aimed at restricting access to that information by third parties. No registration requirement is applicable.

    Joint ownership is possible.

    Trade secret or know-how licenses are common and enforceable.

    Remedies for infringement

    Argentine law provides civil and criminal law remedies for cases of trade secret infringement.

    Damages caused by these violations must be compensated. It is also possible to obtain court orders requiring termination of the violation.

    Preliminary remedies include injunctions against further exploitation or disclosure of trade secrets.

    Criminal remedies are applicable in cases of disclosure of trade secrets acquired in the course of employment and other professional relationship, as well as in cases in which the violation of the rights to confidential information or trade secrets results in unfair competition.

  • Other key IP rights

    Nature of right

    Industrial designs

    Industrial models and designs are protected by special industrial property rights. An industrial model or design consists in the forms embodied in or the aspect applied to an industrial or artisan product, which confer an ornamental character to such product.

    Exclusive rights on industrial models and designs result from registration of the relevant model or design.

    Industrial designs

    Industrial designs

    Legal framework

    Industrial designs

    Industrial models and designs are protected by Decree 6673/1963, as amended. They are also protected in accordance with the Trips Agreement and the Paris Convention.

    Duration of right

    Industrial designs

    The rights derived from the registration of an industrial model or design last for a five-year period, counted from the date of filing of the relevant application. The registration may be renewed for two successive five-year period, if the owner requests such renewal.

    Ownership / licenses

    Industrial designs

    Ownership belongs to the author. There is a rebuttable presumption to the effect that the first applicant of an industrial model or design registration is the author of such industrial model or design. Joint ownership is possible, and is governed by the Civil and Commercial Code and by Decree 6673/1963 as amended.

    Industrial models or designs may be the subject matter of license agreements. No registration is necessary for the validity of these agreements.

    Remedies for infringement

    Industrial designs

    Civil and criminal law remedies are applicable in case of infringement. Civil remedies include the compensation of damages and termination of the violation.

    Preliminary injunctions and remedies are possible in accordance with general procedural rules.

    Criminal sanctions have been recently reinforced, but they are rarely applied.

  • Intellectual property in employment context


    Special rules on employee inventions are included in the Patent Law and in the Labor Contract Law.

    There are basically three types of invention, from the perspective of employer-employee relationships. First, inventions made in technological areas for which the employee was hired as a researcher or developer belong to the employer. The employee may be entitled to a special compensation if he or she develops a patented invention which exceeds the normal scope of the employee's work. Second, inventions related to the employee's work or related to the employer's know-how or activities belong to the employee, but allow the employer to exercise an option to acquire rights over the invention. If the option is exercised, the employee is entitled to a payment reflecting the value of the invention. Third, inventions that do not fall into the two previous categories belong to the employee.

    Similar rules are applicable in the case of other types of technology or intellectual property rights. In the case of software, the law applies the “work for hire” doctrine, but allows the parties to agree to different contractual rules.

    Consultants / contractors

    The law is not explicit about the rights of consultants and contractors, who do not qualify as employees, with regard to technology and other intellectual property they develop. Generally, the parties may agree as to the rules which will apply to such rights. In the absence of a contractual framework, the technology or intellectual property generated by a consultant or contractor who was hired with the purpose of developing such items that will belong to the person paying for such work.

  • Key commercial contract considerations

    Registration of commercial agreements

    The general rule is that commercial agreements are not registered, and that their validity and effect is not subject to registration requirements. However, certain types of agreement must be registered to be effective or to have full effects against third parties. Agreements subject to registration include business association agreements, certain publishing agreements, certain chattel mortgages and certain agreements related to real estate. International transfer of technology agreements are subject to registration for tax purposes.

    Recognized language of commercial agreements

    Agreements are generally entered in Spanish. However, it is legally possible to enter agreements written in other languages. These agreements must be translated when presented in court. Spanish language may be necessary in consumer transactions.

    Country-specific issues for online content

    Argentina has ratified the WIPO conventions applicable online content and practices. However, enforcement of these conventions is weak.

    Enforceability of online/clickwrap/shrinkwrap terms

    The general rule is that acceptance of terms included in online, click wrap or shrink wrap elements is valid and effective, provided such acceptance is clearly stated and applies to terms that were known to the person giving the acceptance. However, several rules may limit the effects of agreements entered by these mechanisms, particularly consumer protection rules and rules on adhesion contracts.

    Governing law

    The basic rule is that the parties may agree as to the law that will govern their contractual rights and as to the applicable jurisdiction in case of dispute. This freedom of election is subject to several limitations. Non-Argentine law will not be enforced in Argentine courts if it  is contrary to Argentine public policy. Also, certain matters are necessarily governed by Argentine law. For example, if a business association is created in Argentina, its organization and other corporate aspects will be governed by Argentine law. Decisions made by non-Argentine courts or arbitration tribunals are enforceable in Argentina only after going through a special procedure before the Argentine courts, in the context of which the decision will only be enforced if it complies with certain rules, particularly not violating Argentine public policy. In addition, certain matters – ie, deciding the validity of a patent issued in Argentina – are necessarily subject to Argentine jurisdiction.

  • Key commercial contract terms

    Enforceability of warranty disclaimers

    Argentine law provides certain warranties, generally applicable to all types of contracts implying the transfer of rights. These warranties apply, in particular, to the validity of the rights being transferred and to the fitness of the goods regarding which rights are transferred.

    The general rule is that these warranties may be limited or eliminated by agreement between the parties. However, these disclaimers are totally or partially invalid in several types of cases: if the transferor had prior knowledge of the invalidity of the transferred rights or of the deficiency of the goods involved; if the transferor is a merchant and the parties waiving his or her rights are not; and if the warranty disclaimer is included in a consumer or adhesion contract.

    Enforceability of exclusions/limitations of liability indemnification

    Exclusions or limitations of liability indemnification are valid if they meet the general conditions applicable to contractual. However, they may be unenforceable in the following cases: when they extend to willful violations or defaults, or to violations or defaults resulting from gross negligence; when they are imposed in adhesion or consumer contracts; or when they result in the violation or annulment of rights that may not be removed or limited contractually.


    The basic rule under Argentine law if full indemnification of economic or moral damages caused by illegal conduct, whether that conduct constitutes a contractual or a tort violation.

    The parties are free to include contractual rules as to the extent of their indemnification obligations.

    Penalty clauses and liquidated damages clauses are acceptable, but they may be limited or amended by the courts if their terms are deemed abusive.

    In the absence of contractual provisions, the indemnification's extent will depend on circumstances such as the willful or negligent nature of the violation, foreseeability of the damages caused and the comparative fault of the parties.

    Electronic signatures

    Electronic signatures are valid and effective under Argentine law. However, certain legal effects require that the signature comply with a special certification regime.

  • Key contacts
    Guillermo Cabanellas
    Guillermo Cabanellas
    Senior Partner DLA Piper (Argentina) [email protected] T +5411 41145500 View bio

Key commercial contract considerations

Enforceability of online/clickwrap/shrinkwrap terms


The general rule is that acceptance of terms included in online, click wrap or shrink wrap elements is valid and effective, provided such acceptance is clearly stated and applies to terms that were known to the person giving the acceptance. However, several rules may limit the effects of agreements entered by these mechanisms, particularly consumer protection rules and rules on adhesion contracts.


These types of terms and contracts are enforceable provided they are validly made, which includes ensuring that the users are made aware of (and, ideally, actively and explicitly accept) the terms of the contract prior to purchase or use of online services. This is usually done by a “tick-a-box” acceptance of terms of sale where consumers are purchasing goods or services online.


Online terms which are in line with the E-Commerce Act (and, if applicable, the Consumer Protection Act) are recognized and fully enforceable. In accordance with consumer protection laws, consumers are usually entitled to revocation of the contract. A notification regarding the revocation right and the respective template for revocation should be set forth in separate documents (not in the terms and conditions).

The enforceability of shrinkwrap terms is severely disputed under Austrian and EU law. This is due to the provisions of Austrian law stating that a contract should be finally concluded before it is executed, and most shrinkwrap agreements do not meet this standard. In addition, under EU law the Rome I and Brussels I regulations also affect this issue and in some cases limit the applicability of shrinkwrap licenses.


In order to enforce online general terms and conditions (including online or clickwrap terms), (i) the contractual provisions must be made available to the other party in such a way that he or she can store and display them; (ii) the other party must have been aware and have consented to the content of the terms; and (iii) a written mention of the other party accepting the terms can be given by any means which guarantees that the mention came from that party.


Online agreements are generally considered enforceable if they are clearly available for the user's review. There is no specific law requiring that the user needs to indicate affirmative assent (eg, separately "check a box") to confirm his or her acceptance to the content and provisions of the agreement. Considering the current lack of specific legislation, the general rules of contracts apply. For instance, if the law does not require express acceptance, such acceptance may be tacit. Therefore, the act of using the services or purchasing the goods may be deemed a tacit acceptance.

It is important to stress that the use of "adhesion contracts" (ie, a written agreement drafted by one of the parties and which, in principle, cannot be amended by the other party) is allowed under Brazilian law. However, owing to their nature, the law and the courts tend to protect the party in the weaker position (ie, adhering party). Brazilian courts may disregard a contractual provision if such provision is deemed abusive (eg, if it contains a waiver of a right by the adhering party).


Generally speaking, clickwrap/shrinkwrap terms have been enforced applying general contract principles. However, it is important to note that several provinces, including Ontario, Québec and Alberta have legislation that limits the effect of arbitration clauses in consumer contracts, and that permits a consumer to bring an action, including a class action, notwithstanding an arbitration clause.


Online, clickwrap and shrinkwrap agreements are generally viewed as enforceable, as Law No. 19,799 provides acts and contracts concluded electronically the same legal value as written documents. If they are concluded with consumers, such consumers must previously be given understandable and unambiguous access to the general conditions of the contract, as well as the possibility of storing or printing them. General terms and conditions used within the framework of an electronic contract must have a letter size of at least 2.5 millimeters. The supplier is obliged to send the consumer a written confirmation of the electronically concluded contract by electronic means or by any other means of communication that ensures that the consumer is duly and appropriately informed, which must contain a full, clear and readable copy of the contract.


Online/clickwrap/shrinkwrap agreements are generally enforceable.


Online, clickwrap and shrink-wrap agreements are generally recognized by Colombian law and are enforceable if they are conspicuous and users have an opportunity to review and indicate affirmative assent.

Czech Republic

Generally viewed as enforceable if conspicuous and users have an opportunity to review and indicate affirmative assent (eg, check a box).


Online terms are generally viewed as enforceable if conspicuous and users have an opportunity to review.

Companies offering services online need to make terms available in a way, which makes it possible to save and retrieve them according to the Act of E-commerce (227 22/04/2002).

In business-to-consumer relations, specific rules apply. For example, the consumer must be able to scroll through the terms and must actively accept these (e.g. by clicking “I agree”).


In B2B context, online terms are generally considered enforceable, provided that they have been accepted and available to the other party upon contracting. Even a link to applicable online terms may suffice to make them enforceable, provided that the other contracting party has had a sufficient and actual chance to become acquainted with the terms upon contracting and that these online terms do not include surprising and strict terms or conditions. If the online terms include surprising and/or strict terms or conditions, these strict terms or conditions need to be separately specified and informed to the other party.

In the B2C context, several limitations apply due to consumer protection legislation.


Online terms are generally viewed as enforceable if conspicuous, and users have an opportunity to review and indicate affirmative assent (eg, check a box).


The incorporation of online and click-wrap general terms and conditions into a contract is generally possible. However, it is debated whether shrink-wrap terms and conditions can validly be incorporated. It seems to be quite clear that the purchaser does not have an opportunity to take note of the contract text and the terms before the contract is concluded and the protective cover is opened.

Hong Kong, SAR

Online terms are generally viewed as enforceable if conspicuous, users have an opportunity to review and indicate affirmative assent (eg, check a box).


Generally viewed as enforceable if conspicuous, users have an opportunity to review and indicate affirmative assent (eg, check a box).


Online terms are generally viewed as enforceable subject to compliance with Indian contract law, and the IT Act. Users must have an opportunity to review and indicate affirmative assent (eg, check a box) to contractual terms.


Online transactions via an electronic contract are generally binding upon the parties. The online offeror must make available complete and true information about the terms, producer and products offered in the online transaction.


The enforceability of online terms is determined in Ireland by their compliance with normal principles of contract and consumer law, rather than by their medium.

The Unfair Contract Terms Directive, 1993/13/EEC was implemented in Ireland under the the European Communities (Unfair Terms in Consumer Contracts) Regulations, S.I. No. 27 of 1995 (as amended). This applies to the content of online/ click wrap/ shrinkwrap contracts in a business to consumer context and contains provisions in particular in respect of the types of contract terms which may be regarded as being unfair. A contract which contains unfair terms risks being unenforceable against the consumer.

In addition, the European Union (Consumer Information, Cancellation and Other Rights) Regulations 2013 require that certain minimum content is included in order for the contract to be enforceable.


Online terms are generally viewed as enforceable under Israeli law, subject to aspects involving there being a standard contract, as further discussed above.

Nevertheless, when entering into an agreement that is reviewed and signed online, companies should ensure that the signer has the opportunity to review the terms of the agreement beforehand and that the signer provides his or her consent to the agreement (such consent should be retrievable for evidentiary purposes), subject to the restrictions set forth in the Standard Contracts Law, as further discussed above.

It should be noted that in some decisions of the Israeli district courts (which are not binding case law, but rather guidance for lower courts), it has been ruled that the courts' tendency will be to revalidate online agreements when the signer provided active consent (clickwrap agreements), as opposed to shrinkwrap (or browserwrap) agreements, where the active consent of the signer is not required.


The following considerations should be taken into account when entering into an online contract, especially in case of clickwrap and shrinkwrap terms.

Pursuant to Section 1341 of the Italian Civil Code, in case of standard terms and conditions drafted by one party, some provisions would be enforceable against the party who did not have the chance to negotiate the contract solely if specifically accepted in writing by the latter though the so called "double signature". In particular, the Italian Civil Code identifies as restrictive clauses the provisions which

  • Limit the liability of the party who prepared the terms and conditions
  • Give said party the right to withdraw from the contract or to suspend the execution thereof
  • Burden the other party with time limits for the exercise of a right or limitations of such party's power to raise defenses or with restrictions on freedom of contract with third persons, or with tacit renewal of the contract
  • Provide for arbitration or derogations from the normal venue or jurisdiction of the courts

In B2C contracts, the clauses which are set by the vendor with no negotiation and which determine a consistent imbalance for the consumer shall be considered "restrictive clause" and therefore void. Where said clauses are the result of a negotiation between the vendor and the consumer, such clauses shall be considered effective provided that they

  • Do not exclude or limit the liability of the vendor in the event of death or injury to the consumer due to an action or omission of the vendor
  • Do not exclude or limit the consumer's power to raise defenses in case of non-fulfillment or inadequate fulfillment of the vendor's obligations
  • Result in the acceptance of clauses that the consumer could not examine before the conclusion of the contract


Online terms are generally considered enforceable if conspicuous and users have an opportunity to review terms in advance.

Under guidelines on e-commerce promulgated by the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, changes of terms of service or use should be appropriately disclosed in a way that users can easily be aware of the changes.

The Electronic Contract Act (Act No. 95 of 2001) allows a consumer who had erroneous operation of a computer (eg, accidental click) to cancel the contract if the company does not take appropriate measures (eg, easily understandable order confirmation display) for the consumer to reconfirm the details of the order before the final click.


When a contract is drafted by one party and the other party merely has the opportunity to accept it (ie, the contract is not negotiated), some provisions must be specifically approved in writing by the other party in order to be enforceable against the party that has not drafted the agreement. Such provisions include those relating to limitation of liability, time limits, exclusivity, withdrawal rights and choice of venue.

For contracts approved online, it is a common practice to contemplate a second check box to specifically approve the relevant clauses. However, such second tick is not deemed sufficient and consequently there is the risk that users challenge the enforceability of the provisions mentioned above while the other terms of the contract will remain valid.


Online terms are generally viewed as enforceable if conspicuous, users have an opportunity to review and indicate affirmative assent (eg, check a box).


In order to be enforceable, the customer must have accepted the terms, usually by ticking a box, and a copy of the terms must be provided or made available. The obligation to provide a copy of the standard terms means that the user has to afford the other party a reasonable opportunity to review and accept the standard terms. The user has afforded the other party this opportunity when he has handed over the standard terms to the other party at the time of entering into the contract. This obligation will be satisfied in an online environment if the standard terms were made available to the consumer either prior to or upon concluding an agreement in such a manner that the consumer could download them and save them on his own data carrier (eg, hard drive, USB stick), since the other party must also be able to refer to them at a later point in time. Including a link to a website is not sufficient.

New Zealand

Information is not denied legal effect solely because it is in electronic form or is an electronic communication. Therefore, online, clickwrap and shrinkwrap agreements are generally enforceable, provided that they are validly made (including giving appropriate notice of terms and conditions).

However, traders must also be mindful of the statutory rights of consumers as well as fair trading requirements, as these may impose additional terms and/or render some terms unenforceable. 


Online terms are generally viewed as enforceable if conspicuous and users have an opportunity to review and indicate affirmative assent. This can for example be done through a check box.

Companies offering services online need to make terms available in a way which makes it possible to save and retrieve them according to the E-commerce Act.

In a business-to-consumer situation, specific rules apply.


Online and clickwrap general terms and conditions are enforceable. However, if written form is prescribed by law (eg, agreements on the transfer of an author's economic rights must be in written form), the document must be signed with handwritten signatures. Therefore, such agreements cannot be concluded as clickwrap terms and conditions. The enforceability of shrinkwrap terms is less clear, especially with regard to the business-consumer relationship.


Online terms are, in principle, enforceable in cases where the legal requirements applicable to the agreement are met.


Online, clickwrap and shrinkwrap agreements are generally viewed as enforceable if they are conspicuous and users have an opportunity to review and indicate affirmative assent (such as through checking a box). However, unusual clauses (such as limitation of liability clauses or clauses containing the right to unilaterally terminate the contract or to suspend the performance of the obligations and the like) must be expressly accepted in writing in order to be enforceable.


There is still no established practice on acceptance/enforceability of online terms. In most cases, however, such online terms should be deemed binding if accepted by the addressee (eg, by click method), and such accepting party can be identified in case of dispute.

Saudi Arabia

The enforceability of online terms (including whether the user has given appropriate consent to such terms) should be reviewed on a case-by-case basis.


Online/clickwrap/shrinkwrap contracts are generally enforceable in Singapore. Online transactions are regulated by the Electronic Transactions Act (Cap. 88). This sets out the legislation surrounding the formation of contracts through online and electronic means and enforceability of these contracts.

Slovak Republic

Not applicable for this jurisdiction.

South Korea

The Electronic Transactions Basic Law (ETBL) stipulates that an electronic document shall not be denied its validity only because it takes an electronic form, unless otherwise provided in other laws.

Nor is there any law that restricts the effectiveness and enforceability of a contract in an online form.

For standardized contracts which we understand will be the case for most agreements executed via a web interface, the validity and effectiveness of such agreements will depend on meeting the requirements of the STCA. There is no black-letter law on what would be an acceptable form in an on-line setting to satisfy the foregoing requirements. However, it is widely accepted that a mere posting of the contract and its terms and conditions on a website would not be sufficient. Commonly used methods to meet this requirement include the posting of the online contract with an "I accept" button at the end (which can be clicked only if the counter-party had scrolled the screen to the bottom) or having a pop-up window show up with an explanation of the major terms and conditions and then having the other party click an "I understand" button.


Generally viewed as enforceable if conspicuous, users have an opportunity to review and indicate affirmative assent, eg, check box.

The LSSI regulates electronic contracts, although the Spanish Civil Law must be also taken into account. The LSSI further obliges service providers to provide information in a clear, understandable and unambiguous way regarding the conclusion of the contract. Electronic contracts will have the same legal effects, provided that the consent and other legal requirements that is object and cause have been satisfied.


Online terms are generally viewed as enforceable if conspicuous and users have an opportunity to review and indicate affirmative assent (eg, check a box).

Companies offering services online need to make terms available in a way which makes it possible to save and retrieve them according to the Act on E-Commerce.

In a business-to-consumer situation, specific rules apply.


Shrinkwrap terms are not valid. The terms of the license must be made available to the consumer before the opening of the package.

Online and clickwrap terms are enforceable if they are visible, easily available and phrased clearly. 

Taiwan, China

Online, clickwrap and shrinkwrap agreements are generally enforceable if material terms and conditions are conspicuous and users have an opportunity to review and indicate affirmative assent, eg, check a box; provided that, among other obligations under the Consumer Protection Act, sellers shall allow consumers to return the products within seven days without any cause at the expenses of sellers.


Ukrainian legislation does not distinguish such forms of agreements as online, clickwrap or shrinkwrap agreements (or terms). Formally, the agreements concluded according to the requirements of the E-Commerce Law (presumably, online or clickwrap agreements) are deemed enforceable. Additionally, the law established that the validity of the electronic document cannot be denied solely due to the electronic form of the document. However, in practice such forms of agreements may be rejected by controlling authorities. For example, state authorities require that the software licences must be provided in a written form to duly confirm the rights of the Ukrainian legal entities to use relevant software.

United Arab Emirates

Article 12 of the Copyright Law provides that the assignment of rights to commercial exploitation pertaining to computer software, its applications or databases, shall be subject to the licensing agreement associated or attached to the program, whether appearing on the supporting bar or upon downloading or saving the program. The buyer or user of the program shall be bound to abide by the terms set out in the said agreement.

United Kingdom

The legal enforceability of shrinkwrap terms has historically been somewhat debated by academics (though common commercial practice). The Consumer Rights Act 2015 now sets out a consumer's rights and obligations under business-to-consumer supply contracts for digital content (business-to-business being out of scope). Consumers now have statutory rights against the business supplier regarding the quality and title of digital content supplied, whether that be downloaded online or supplied as part of physical goods such as DVDs and CDs.

There are a number of requirements which relate to online terms which govern transactions entered into or services provided over the internet. For example, the Electronic Commerce (EC Directive) Regulations 2002 and Consumer Contracts (Information, Cancellation and Additional Charges) Regulations 2013 set out details of the information that must be provided by the trader.

Certain information regarding the new European Online Dispute Resolution platform must now also be provided by online traders on their website and in their terms, if that trader is statutorily obliged to use this alternative dispute resolution procedure.

United States

Online, clickwrap and shrinkwrap agreements are generally viewed as enforceable if they are conspicuous and users have an opportunity to review and indicate affirmative assent, eg, check a box.